Extraction and characterization of candidate bioactive compounds in different tissues from salmon (Salmo salar)

Susan Skanderup Falkenberg, S. O. Mikalsen, H. Joensen, J. Stagsted, Henrik Hauch Nielsen

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Abstract

There is an interest in bioprospecting organisms from the aquatic environment to find novel bioactive compounds with health promoting or other functional properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate extracts from untreated and heat-treated salmon tissues for their radical scavenging activities and for their ability to inhibit activity of the proteases angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). In vitro assays were used to detect these activities and the corresponding candidate bioactive compounds were characterized by LC-MS/MS.Radical scavenging activity was detected in <10kDa extracts of gills, belly flap muscle and skin with EC50 values of 39, 82 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. No ACE or DPP-4 inhibiting activity could be detected. LC-MS/MS analysis of dominating compounds in active fractions from size exclusion chromatography showed that families of related compounds were found in several fractions from different tissues but most pronounced in gills. One family was defined according to content of a specific amino acid sequence (PW). Three families were defined by the m/z value of the smallest compound reported in each family (219, 434 and 403). The three latter families did not contain standard unmodified amino acids, indicating peptides with modified amino acids or other kinds of molecules.Industrial relevance. Bioprospecting in fish tissue traditionally regarded as waste can lead to detection of novel natural bioactive compounds including peptides, which could have nutritional, pharmaceutical or other functional value and be used in health and functional foods, thus increasing the value adding of secondary marine products. A number of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides have been characterized from fish skin and gills, such as piscidins, but these and other fish tissues may contain numerous other compounds with bioactive properties. Such compounds could be extracted by the subsection of the fish industry that processes marine secondary products and further developed to commercial products. Thus, the identification of novel bioactive compounds could be utilized by the pharmaceutical and biotech industry to develop new products.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products
Volume7
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)11-25
Number of pages15
ISSN1940-6223
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Marine by-products
  • Natural compounds
  • Radical scavenging
  • Salmon tissue

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