Slow–fast systems often possess slow manifolds, that is invariant or locally invariant sub-manifolds on which the dynamics evolves on the slow time scale. For systems with explicit timescale separation, the existence of slow manifolds is due to Fenichel theory, and asymptotic expansions of such manifolds are easily obtained. In this paper, we discuss methods of approximating slow manifolds using the so-called zero-derivative principle. We demonstrate several test functions that work for systems with explicit time scale separation including ones that can be generalized to systems without explicit timescale separation. We also discuss the possible spurious solutions, known as ghosts, as well as treat the Templator system as an example.
- Slow–fast dynamics
- Zero-derivative principle
- Slow manifolds
- Fenichel theory
- Intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds