In this study asphalt-Aggregate mixes are treated as both viscoelastic and viscoplastic. Following a damage mechanics approach, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive formulation is generated from a linear formulation by replacing 'applied stresses' with 'effective viscoelastic stresses'. A non-dimensional scalar entity called 'relative viscoelastic stiffness' is introduced; it is defined as the ratio of applied to effective viscoelastic stress and encapsulates different types of nonlinearities. The paper proposes a computational scheme for exposing these nonlinearities by uncovering, through direct analysis of any test data, changes experienced by the 'relative viscoelastic stiffness'. In general terms, the method is based on simultaneous application of creep and relaxation formulations while preserving the interrelationship between the corresponding time functions. The proposed scheme is demonstrated by analyzing a uniaxial tension test and a uniaxial compression test (separately). Results are presented and discussed, unveiling and contrasting the character of viscoelastic nonlinearities in both cases. A conceptual viewpoint is offered to explain the observations, illustrating the requirements from any candidate constitutive theory.
- Asphalt mixes
- Transverse isotropy