Experimental validation of onboard electric vehicle chargers to improve the efficiency of smart charging operation

Kristian Sevdari*, Lisa Calearo, Bjørn Harald Bakken, Peter Bach Andersen, Mattia Marinelli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Electric vehicles (EVs) are at the center of the power and transport sector coupling; however, smart charging is required to not compromise the integrity of the grid. In this work, we propose, test, and validate a method for investigating EV onboard chargers via the OBDII port. We present the charging efficiency and reactive power characteristics of 38 different EV models from the last 11 years. Data show that, due to added losses, smart charging through current modulation can increase global charging energy demand from 1%–10%. In addition, EVs consume a relatively large amount of reactive power at lower currents, and some models violate the power factor limits for the low-voltage grid. Our projections show an efficiency of 88%–95% by 2030 and a saturation between 90%–96% by 2035. Therefore, the newly presented AC-to-DC conversion efficiency values help achieve better results when calculating life cycle assessment, grid integration and energy simulation that consider EVs. Curtailed smart charging can further integrate charging needs by implementing phase balancing and matching with behind-the-meter local generation. Finally, our results urge regulators and automakers to further improve charging technology and legislation based on other technological experiences, e.g. solar inverters.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103512
JournalSustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments
Volume60
Number of pages17
ISSN2213-1388
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Efficiency
  • Electric vehicles
  • Onboard charger
  • Smart charging
  • Transport sustainability

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