Experimental Observation of Proton Bunch Modulation in a Plasma at Varying Plasma Densities

E. Adli, A. Ahuja, O. Apsimon, R. Apsimon, A.-M. Bachmann, D. Barrientos, M. M. Barros, J. Batkiewicz, F. Batsch, J. Bauche, V. K. Berglyd Olsen, M. Bernardini, B. Biskup, A. Boccardi, T. Bogey, T. Bohl, C. Bracco, F. Braunmüller, S. Burger, G. BurtS. Bustamante, B. Buttenschön, A. Caldwell, M. Cascella, J. Chappell, E. Chevallay, M. Chung, D. Cooke, H. Damerau, L. Deacon, L. H. Deubner, A. Dexter, S. Doebert, J. Farmer, V. N. Fedosseev, G. Fior, R. Fiorito, R. A. Fonseca, F. Friebel, L. Garolfi, S. Gessner, I. Gorgisyan, A. A. Gorn, E. Granados, O. Grulke, E. Gschwendtner, A. Guerrero, J. Hansen, A. Helm, J. R. Henderson, C. Hessler, W. Hofle, M. Hüther, M. Ibison, L. Jensen, S. Jolly, F. Keeble, S.-Y. Kim, F. Kraus, T. Lefevre, G. LeGodec, Y. Li, S. Liu, N. Lopes, K. V. Lotov, L. Maricalva Brun, M. Martyanov, S. Mazzoni, D. Medina Godoy, V. A. Minakov, J. Mitchell, J. C. Molendijk, R. Mompo, J. T. Moody, M. Moreira, P. Muggli, C. Mutin, E. Öz, E. Ozturk, C. Pasquino, A. Pardons, F. Peña Asmus, K. Pepitone, A. Perera, A. Petrenko, S. Pitman, G. Plyushchev, A. Pukhov, S. Rey, K. Rieger*, H. Ruhl, J. S. Schmidt, I. A. Shalimova, E. Shaposhnikova, P. Sherwood, L. O. Silva, L. Soby, A. P. Sosedkin, R. Speroni, R. I. Spitsyn, P. V. Tuev, M. Turner, F. Velotti, L. Verra, V. A. Verzilov, J. Vieira, H. Vincke, C. P. Welsch, B. Williamson, M. Wing, B. Woolley, G. Xia

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

We give direct experimental evidence for the observation of the full transverse self-modulation of a long, relativistic proton bunch propagating through a dense plasma. The bunch exits the plasma with a periodic density modulation resulting from radial wakefield effects. We show that the modulation is seeded by a relativistic ionization front created using an intense laser pulse copropagating with the proton bunch. The modulation extends over the length of the proton bunch following the seed point. By varying the plasma density over one order of magnitude, we show that the modulation frequency scales with the expected dependence on the plasma density, i.e., it is equal to the plasma frequency, as expected from theory.
Original languageEnglish
Article number054802
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume122
Issue number5
Number of pages6
ISSN0031-9007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2019

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