Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

M. H. Reichkendler, P. Auerbach, M. Rosenkilde, A. N. Christensen, S. Holm, M. B. Petersen, A. Lagerberg, H. B. W. Larsson, E. Rostrup, Thomas Hammershaimb Mosbech, A. Sjödin, A. Kjaer, T. Ploug, L. Hoejgaard, B. Stallknecht

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Physical exercise increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, but regional differences are poorly elucidated in humans. We investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in five individual femoral muscle groups and four different adipose tissue regions, using dynamic (femoral region) and static (abdominal region) 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) PET/CT methodology during steady-state insulin infusion (40 mU·m−2·min−1). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and MRI. Sixty-one healthy, sedentary [V̇o2max 36(5) ml·kg−1·min−1; mean(SD)], moderately overweight [BMI 28.1(1.8) kg/m2], young [age: 30(6) yr] men were randomized to sedentary living (CON; n = 17 completers) or moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day, n = 18) or high (HIGH; 600 kcal/day, n = 18) dose physical exercise for 11 wk. At baseline, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was highest in femoral skeletal muscle followed by intraperitoneal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), retroperitoneal VAT, abdominal (anterior + posterior) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and femoral SAT (P <0.0001 between tissues). Metabolic rate of glucose increased similarly (∼30%) in the two exercise groups in femoral skeletal muscle (MOD 24[9, 39] μmol·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.004; HIGH 22[9, 35] μmol·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.003) (mean[95% CI]) and in five individual femoral muscle groups but not in femoral SAT. Standardized uptake value of FDG decreased ∼24% in anterior abdominal SAT and ∼20% in posterior abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue, which demonstrates some interregional differences.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume305
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)E496-E506
ISSN0193-1849
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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