Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-Of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications

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Abstract

The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips. We argued recently that system evolvability, defined as the design characteristic that facilitates more manageable transitions between system generations via the modification of an inherited design, can help remedy these limitations. In this paper, we discuss how platform-based design can constitute a formal entry point to the design and implementation of evolvable smart device/lab-on-chip systems. We present both a hardware/software design framework and the implementation details of a platform prototype enabling at this stage the interfacing of several lab-on-chip variants relying on current- or impedance-based biosensors. Our findings suggest that several change-enabling mechanisms implemented in the higher abstraction software layers of the system can promote evolvability, together with the design of change-absorbing hardware/software interfaces. Our platform architecture is based on a mobile software application programming interface coupled to a modular hardware accessory. It allows the specification of lab-on-chip operation and post-analytic functions at the mobile software layer. We demonstrate its potential by operating a simple lab-on-chip to carry out the detection of dopamine using various electroanalytical methods.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDiagnostics
Volume6
Issue number33
Number of pages17
ISSN2075-4418
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License

Keywords

  • Lab-on-chip
  • Smartphone
  • Point-of-care
  • System evolvability
  • Platform-based design
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-Of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications",
abstract = "The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips. We argued recently that system evolvability, defined as the design characteristic that facilitates more manageable transitions between system generations via the modification of an inherited design, can help remedy these limitations. In this paper, we discuss how platform-based design can constitute a formal entry point to the design and implementation of evolvable smart device/lab-on-chip systems. We present both a hardware/software design framework and the implementation details of a platform prototype enabling at this stage the interfacing of several lab-on-chip variants relying on current- or impedance-based biosensors. Our findings suggest that several change-enabling mechanisms implemented in the higher abstraction software layers of the system can promote evolvability, together with the design of change-absorbing hardware/software interfaces. Our platform architecture is based on a mobile software application programming interface coupled to a modular hardware accessory. It allows the specification of lab-on-chip operation and post-analytic functions at the mobile software layer. We demonstrate its potential by operating a simple lab-on-chip to carry out the detection of dopamine using various electroanalytical methods.",
keywords = "Lab-on-chip, Smartphone, Point-of-care, System evolvability, Platform-based design, Electrochemistry",
author = "Fran{\cc}ois Patou and {Al Atraktchi}, {Fatima Al-Zahraa} and Claus Kj{\ae}rgaard and Maria Dimaki and Jan Madsen and Svendsen, {Winnie Edith}",
note = "This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.3390/diagnostics6030033",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Diagnostics",
issn = "2075-4418",
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Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-Of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications. / Patou, François; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Kjærgaard, Claus; Dimaki, Maria; Madsen, Jan; Svendsen, Winnie Edith.

In: Diagnostics, Vol. 6, No. 33, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-Of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications

AU - Patou, François

AU - Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa

AU - Kjærgaard, Claus

AU - Dimaki, Maria

AU - Madsen, Jan

AU - Svendsen, Winnie Edith

N1 - This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips. We argued recently that system evolvability, defined as the design characteristic that facilitates more manageable transitions between system generations via the modification of an inherited design, can help remedy these limitations. In this paper, we discuss how platform-based design can constitute a formal entry point to the design and implementation of evolvable smart device/lab-on-chip systems. We present both a hardware/software design framework and the implementation details of a platform prototype enabling at this stage the interfacing of several lab-on-chip variants relying on current- or impedance-based biosensors. Our findings suggest that several change-enabling mechanisms implemented in the higher abstraction software layers of the system can promote evolvability, together with the design of change-absorbing hardware/software interfaces. Our platform architecture is based on a mobile software application programming interface coupled to a modular hardware accessory. It allows the specification of lab-on-chip operation and post-analytic functions at the mobile software layer. We demonstrate its potential by operating a simple lab-on-chip to carry out the detection of dopamine using various electroanalytical methods.

AB - The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips. We argued recently that system evolvability, defined as the design characteristic that facilitates more manageable transitions between system generations via the modification of an inherited design, can help remedy these limitations. In this paper, we discuss how platform-based design can constitute a formal entry point to the design and implementation of evolvable smart device/lab-on-chip systems. We present both a hardware/software design framework and the implementation details of a platform prototype enabling at this stage the interfacing of several lab-on-chip variants relying on current- or impedance-based biosensors. Our findings suggest that several change-enabling mechanisms implemented in the higher abstraction software layers of the system can promote evolvability, together with the design of change-absorbing hardware/software interfaces. Our platform architecture is based on a mobile software application programming interface coupled to a modular hardware accessory. It allows the specification of lab-on-chip operation and post-analytic functions at the mobile software layer. We demonstrate its potential by operating a simple lab-on-chip to carry out the detection of dopamine using various electroanalytical methods.

KW - Lab-on-chip

KW - Smartphone

KW - Point-of-care

KW - System evolvability

KW - Platform-based design

KW - Electrochemistry

U2 - 10.3390/diagnostics6030033

DO - 10.3390/diagnostics6030033

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 27598208

VL - 6

JO - Diagnostics

JF - Diagnostics

SN - 2075-4418

IS - 33

ER -