Evaluation of the Global Mean Sea Level Budget between 1993 and 2014

Don P. Chambers*, Anny Cazenave, Nicolas Champollion, Habib Dieng, William Llovel, René Forsberg, Karina von Schuckmann, Yoshihide Wada

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review


    Evaluating global mean sea level (GMSL) in terms of its components—mass and steric—is useful for both quantifying the accuracy of the measurements and understanding the processes that contribute to GMSL rise. In this paper, we review the GMSL budget over two periods—1993 to 2014 and 2005 to 2014—using multiple data sets of both total GMSL and the components (mass and steric). In addition to comparing linear trends, we also compare the level of agreement of the time series. For the longer period (1993–2014), we find closure in terms of the long-term trend but not for year-to-year variations, consistent with other studies. This is due to the lack of sufficient estimates of the amount of natural water mass cycling between the oceans and hydrosphere. For the more recent period (2005–2014), we find closure in both the long-term trend and for month-to-month variations. This is also consistent with previous studies.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalSurveys in Geophysics
    Issue number1
    Pages (from-to)309-327
    Publication statusPublished - 2017


    • Climate change
    • Ocean mass
    • Sea level
    • Steric sea level


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