Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks

M E Arnold, M J Slomka*, A C Breed, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, S Pritz-Verschuren, S Venema-Kemper, R J Bouwstra, Ramona Trebbien, S Zohari, V Ceeraz, L E Larsen, R J Manvell, G Koch, I H Brown

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Abstract

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any 'gold standard'. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalEpidemiology and Infection
    Pages (from-to)1-8
    ISSN0950-2688
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Bibliographical note

    © Cambridge University Press 2018. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    Keywords

    • AIV (avian influenza virus)
    • Bayesian
    • ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
    • H5/H7 AIV surveillance
    • HI (haemagglutination inhibition)

    Cite this

    Arnold, M E ; Slomka, M J ; Breed, A C ; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane ; Pritz-Verschuren, S ; Venema-Kemper, S ; Bouwstra, R J ; Trebbien, Ramona ; Zohari, S ; Ceeraz, V ; Larsen, L E ; Manvell, R J ; Koch, G ; Brown, I H. / Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks. In: Epidemiology and Infection. 2018 ; pp. 1-8.
    @article{641c231ab4174d2fb5ae8e1f98057dec,
    title = "Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks",
    abstract = "Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any 'gold standard'. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97{\%} and 99.8{\%}, and for H5/H7 HI 43{\%} and 99.8{\%}, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30{\%} with 95{\%} probability.",
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    author = "Arnold, {M E} and Slomka, {M J} and Breed, {A C} and Hjulsager, {Charlotte Kristiane} and S Pritz-Verschuren and S Venema-Kemper and Bouwstra, {R J} and Ramona Trebbien and S Zohari and V Ceeraz and Larsen, {L E} and Manvell, {R J} and G Koch and Brown, {I H}",
    note = "{\circledC} Cambridge University Press 2018. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.",
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    Arnold, ME, Slomka, MJ, Breed, AC, Hjulsager, CK, Pritz-Verschuren, S, Venema-Kemper, S, Bouwstra, RJ, Trebbien, R, Zohari, S, Ceeraz, V, Larsen, LE, Manvell, RJ, Koch, G & Brown, IH 2018, 'Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks', Epidemiology and Infection, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268817002898

    Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks. / Arnold, M E; Slomka, M J; Breed, A C; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pritz-Verschuren, S; Venema-Kemper, S; Bouwstra, R J; Trebbien, Ramona; Zohari, S; Ceeraz, V; Larsen, L E; Manvell, R J; Koch, G; Brown, I H.

    In: Epidemiology and Infection, 2018, p. 1-8.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks

    AU - Arnold, M E

    AU - Slomka, M J

    AU - Breed, A C

    AU - Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    AU - Pritz-Verschuren, S

    AU - Venema-Kemper, S

    AU - Bouwstra, R J

    AU - Trebbien, Ramona

    AU - Zohari, S

    AU - Ceeraz, V

    AU - Larsen, L E

    AU - Manvell, R J

    AU - Koch, G

    AU - Brown, I H

    N1 - © Cambridge University Press 2018. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    PY - 2018

    Y1 - 2018

    N2 - Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any 'gold standard'. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.

    AB - Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any 'gold standard'. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.

    KW - AIV (avian influenza virus)

    KW - Bayesian

    KW - ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)

    KW - H5/H7 AIV surveillance

    KW - HI (haemagglutination inhibition)

    U2 - 10.1017/S0950268817002898

    DO - 10.1017/S0950268817002898

    M3 - Journal article

    C2 - 29325601

    SP - 1

    EP - 8

    JO - Epidemiology and Infection

    JF - Epidemiology and Infection

    SN - 0950-2688

    ER -