Evaluation method for the hourly average CO2eq. Intensity of the electricity mix and its application to the demand response of residential heating

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2019Researchpeer-review

Standard

Evaluation method for the hourly average CO2eq. Intensity of the electricity mix and its application to the demand response of residential heating. / Clauß, John; Stinner, Sebastian; Solli, Christian; Lindberg, Karen Byskov; Madsen, Henrik; Georges, Laurent.

In: Energies, Vol. 12, No. 7, 1345, 08.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2019Researchpeer-review

Harvard

APA

CBE

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Clauß, John ; Stinner, Sebastian ; Solli, Christian ; Lindberg, Karen Byskov ; Madsen, Henrik ; Georges, Laurent. / Evaluation method for the hourly average CO2eq. Intensity of the electricity mix and its application to the demand response of residential heating. In: Energies. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 7.

Bibtex

@article{3edfad687f3e4d2cb1c87d9ab701d838,
title = "Evaluation method for the hourly average CO2eq. Intensity of the electricity mix and its application to the demand response of residential heating",
abstract = "This work introduces a generic methodology to determine the hourly average CO 2eq . intensity of the electricity mix of a bidding zone. The proposed method is based on the logic of input-output models and avails the balance between electricity generation and demand. The methodology also takes into account electricity trading between bidding zones and time-varying CO 2eq . intensities of the electricity traded. The paper shows that it is essential to take into account electricity imports and their varying CO 2eq . intensities for the evaluation of the CO 2eq . intensity in Scandinavian bidding zones. Generally, the average CO 2eq . intensity of the Norwegian electricity mix increases during times of electricity imports since the average CO 2eq . intensity is normally low because electricity is mainly generated from hydropower. Among other applications, the CO 2eq . intensity can be used as a penalty signal in predictive controls of building energy systems since ENTSO-E provides 72 h forecasts of electricity generation. Therefore, as a second contribution, the demand response potential for heating a single-family residential building based on the hourly average CO 2eq . intensity of six Scandinavian bidding zones is investigated. Predictive rule-based controls are implemented into a building performance simulation tool (here IDA ICE) to study the influence that the daily fluctuations of the CO 2eq . intensity signal have on the potential overall emission savings. The results show that control strategies based on the CO 2eq . intensity can achieve emission reductions, if daily fluctuations of the CO 2eq . intensity are large enough to compensate for the increased electricity use due to load shifting. Furthermore, the results reveal that price-based control strategies usually lead to increased overall emissions for the Scandinavian bidding zones as the operation is shifted to nighttime, when cheap carbon-intensive electricity is imported from the continental European power grid.",
keywords = "Demand response, Energy flexibility, Hourly CO2eq. intensity, Predictive rule-based control",
author = "John Clau{\ss} and Sebastian Stinner and Christian Solli and Lindberg, {Karen Byskov} and Henrik Madsen and Laurent Georges",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "8",
doi = "10.3390/en12071345",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Energies",
issn = "1996-1073",
publisher = "M D P I AG",
number = "7",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation method for the hourly average CO2eq. Intensity of the electricity mix and its application to the demand response of residential heating

AU - Clauß, John

AU - Stinner, Sebastian

AU - Solli, Christian

AU - Lindberg, Karen Byskov

AU - Madsen, Henrik

AU - Georges, Laurent

PY - 2019/4/8

Y1 - 2019/4/8

N2 - This work introduces a generic methodology to determine the hourly average CO 2eq . intensity of the electricity mix of a bidding zone. The proposed method is based on the logic of input-output models and avails the balance between electricity generation and demand. The methodology also takes into account electricity trading between bidding zones and time-varying CO 2eq . intensities of the electricity traded. The paper shows that it is essential to take into account electricity imports and their varying CO 2eq . intensities for the evaluation of the CO 2eq . intensity in Scandinavian bidding zones. Generally, the average CO 2eq . intensity of the Norwegian electricity mix increases during times of electricity imports since the average CO 2eq . intensity is normally low because electricity is mainly generated from hydropower. Among other applications, the CO 2eq . intensity can be used as a penalty signal in predictive controls of building energy systems since ENTSO-E provides 72 h forecasts of electricity generation. Therefore, as a second contribution, the demand response potential for heating a single-family residential building based on the hourly average CO 2eq . intensity of six Scandinavian bidding zones is investigated. Predictive rule-based controls are implemented into a building performance simulation tool (here IDA ICE) to study the influence that the daily fluctuations of the CO 2eq . intensity signal have on the potential overall emission savings. The results show that control strategies based on the CO 2eq . intensity can achieve emission reductions, if daily fluctuations of the CO 2eq . intensity are large enough to compensate for the increased electricity use due to load shifting. Furthermore, the results reveal that price-based control strategies usually lead to increased overall emissions for the Scandinavian bidding zones as the operation is shifted to nighttime, when cheap carbon-intensive electricity is imported from the continental European power grid.

AB - This work introduces a generic methodology to determine the hourly average CO 2eq . intensity of the electricity mix of a bidding zone. The proposed method is based on the logic of input-output models and avails the balance between electricity generation and demand. The methodology also takes into account electricity trading between bidding zones and time-varying CO 2eq . intensities of the electricity traded. The paper shows that it is essential to take into account electricity imports and their varying CO 2eq . intensities for the evaluation of the CO 2eq . intensity in Scandinavian bidding zones. Generally, the average CO 2eq . intensity of the Norwegian electricity mix increases during times of electricity imports since the average CO 2eq . intensity is normally low because electricity is mainly generated from hydropower. Among other applications, the CO 2eq . intensity can be used as a penalty signal in predictive controls of building energy systems since ENTSO-E provides 72 h forecasts of electricity generation. Therefore, as a second contribution, the demand response potential for heating a single-family residential building based on the hourly average CO 2eq . intensity of six Scandinavian bidding zones is investigated. Predictive rule-based controls are implemented into a building performance simulation tool (here IDA ICE) to study the influence that the daily fluctuations of the CO 2eq . intensity signal have on the potential overall emission savings. The results show that control strategies based on the CO 2eq . intensity can achieve emission reductions, if daily fluctuations of the CO 2eq . intensity are large enough to compensate for the increased electricity use due to load shifting. Furthermore, the results reveal that price-based control strategies usually lead to increased overall emissions for the Scandinavian bidding zones as the operation is shifted to nighttime, when cheap carbon-intensive electricity is imported from the continental European power grid.

KW - Demand response

KW - Energy flexibility

KW - Hourly CO2eq. intensity

KW - Predictive rule-based control

U2 - 10.3390/en12071345

DO - 10.3390/en12071345

M3 - Journal article

VL - 12

JO - Energies

JF - Energies

SN - 1996-1073

IS - 7

M1 - 1345

ER -