Three wine-making residues (grape seeds, skins and stems), and corn cobs were evaluated as support material for immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the ethanol production by the immobilized cells was assessed. The main objective of this study was to find an abundant and low cost material suitable for the cells immobilization and able to be used in a next step of wine production by immobilized yeast cells. The four natural materials were used as support in two different forms: untreated, and treated by a sequence of acid and basic reactions. Untreated grape skin and corn cobs provided the highest cell immobilization results (25.1 and 22.2. mg cells/g support, respectively). The maximum ethanol production yield (about 0.50. g/g) was also obtained when the cells were immobilized in these untreated materials. It was also found that the support materials released nutrients to the medium, which favored the yeast development and the ethanol production. The use of immobilized cells systems under agitated conditions gave ethanol yields similar to those obtained by the static fermentations, but the immobilized cell concentration was significantly lower. In brief, static fermentation with cells immobilized on grape skins or corn cobs appear to be an interesting alternative for use on wine-making. The use of grape skins, particularly, which is a by-product of the wine elaboration, could be of larger interest to obtain an integrated wine production process with by-product reuse.
Genisheva, Z., Mussatto, S. I., Oliveira , J. M., & Teixeira, J. A. (2011). Evaluating the potential of wine-making residues and corn cobs as support materials for cell immobilization for ethanol production. Industrial Crops and Products, 34(1), 979-985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.03.006