Ethyl Cellulose-Core, OSA Starch-Shell Electrosprayed Microcapsules Enhance the Oxidative Stability of Loaded Fish Oil

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The encapsulation and the oxidative stability of cod liver fish oil (CLO) within coaxial electrosprayed (ethyl cellulose/CLO) core-(octenyl succinic anhydride, OSA-modified starch) shell, and monoaxial electrosprayed ethyl cellulose/CLO microcapsules were investigated. Core-shell (H-ECLO) and monoaxial (ECLO) electrosprayed microcapsules with an average diameter of 2.8 ± 1.8 µm, and 2.2 ± 1.4 µm, respectively, were produced. Confocal microscopy confirmed not only the core-shell structure of the H-ECLO microcapsules, but also the location of the CLO in the core. However, for the ECLO microcapsules, the CLO was distributed on the microcapsules' surface, as also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy showed that the average surface adhesion of the H-ECLO microcapsules was significantly lower (5.41 ± 0.31 nN) than ECLO microcapsules (18.18 ± 1.07 nN), while the H-ECLO microcapsules showed a remarkably higher Young's modulus (33.84 ± 4.36 MPa) than the ECLO microcapsules (6.64 ± 0.84 MPa). Differential scanning calorimetry results confirmed that the H-ECLO microcapsules enhanced the oxidative stability of encapsulated CLO by about 15 times, in comparison to non-encapsulated oil, mainly by preventing the presence of the fish oil at the surface of the microcapsules, while ECLO microcapsules enhanced the oxidative stability of CLO about 2.9 times due to the hydrophobic interactions of the oil and ethyl cellulose. Furthermore, the finite element method was also used to evaluate the electric field strength distribution, which was substantially higher in the vicinity of the collector and lower in the proximity of the nozzle when the coaxial electrospray process was employed in comparison to the monoaxial process.
Original languageEnglish
Article number510
Issue number6
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Ethyl cellulose
  • OSA–modified starch
  • Fish oil
  • Micro-encapsulation
  • Coaxial electrospray
  • Oxidative stability


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