Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources illustrated as well as the degree of electrification for different countries. Traffic parameters such as passenger occupancy rates, per capita freight and passenger traffic are presented for European conditions. The relationship between average train speed and distance between stops is shown for a variety of passenger trains as well as the effect of these two variables on the energy consumption of the train. Energy consumption is shown to increase as the distance between stops decreases at a given average speed. Average energy consumption is presented for several types of freight and passenger trains.
- air pollution