Ester-linked ubiquitination of serine or threonine residues - or even lipids - has emerged as a new regulatory earmark in cell signalling. Petrova et al. (2021) now reveal that ubiquitin esterification by the atypical ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1, a component of the LUBAC complex, is critical for proper formation of linear ubiquitin chains and control of immune signalling in T cells and macrophages. Surprisingly, ester-linked ubiquitination can either promote or inhibit linear ubiquitin conjugation and cytokine production depending on the receptor and immune cell engaged. Comment on: https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.15896.
- Immune signalling