Equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTM) of acidic organic pollutants using hollow fibre modules in continuous steady-state mode

Niklas Larsson, Karl Utterback, Lars Toräng, Johan Risberg, Per Gustafsson, Philipp Mayer, Jan Åke Jönsson

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Hollow fibre (HF) membrane modules were applied in continuous mode for equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTIM) of polar organic pollutants. Phenolic compounds (chlorophenols, cresols and phenol) served as model substances and ESTM was tuned towards the measurement of freely dissolved concentrations (C(free)). HF membrane modules were constructed using thin-walled membrane, 1-m module length and low packing density in order to optimise the uptake kinetics of the analytes into the acceptor solution. Such custom made devices were tested and compared to commercially available modules. The former modules performed best for continuous ESTIM. The custom made modules provided steady-state equilibrium within 20-40 min and enrichment that was in general agreement with calculated distribution ratios between acceptor and sample. In experiments during which sample concentration was changed, acceptor response time to decreased sample concentration was around 30 min for custom built modules. In the presence of commercial humic acids, analytes showed lower steady-state enrichment, which is due to a decrease in C(free). Continuous ESTM may be automated and is suggested for use in online determination of C(free) of pollutants and studies on sorption of pollutants. Future studies should include optimisation of the membrane liquid and factors regarding the residence time of the acceptor solution in the fibre lumen. Qualitative aspects of DOM should also be included, as natural DOM can be fractionated. C(free) could be correlated to DOM properties that have previously been shown to influence sorption, such as aromaticity, carboxylic acid content and molecular size. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalChemosphere
Volume76
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1213-1220
ISSN0045-6535
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Membrane extraction
  • Equilibrium sampling
  • Freely dissolved concentration
  • Hollow fibre
  • Continuous extraction
  • Liquid chromatography

Cite this

Larsson, Niklas ; Utterback, Karl ; Toräng, Lars ; Risberg, Johan ; Gustafsson, Per ; Mayer, Philipp ; Jönsson, Jan Åke. / Equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTM) of acidic organic pollutants using hollow fibre modules in continuous steady-state mode. In: Chemosphere. 2009 ; Vol. 76, No. 9. pp. 1213-1220.
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abstract = "Hollow fibre (HF) membrane modules were applied in continuous mode for equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTIM) of polar organic pollutants. Phenolic compounds (chlorophenols, cresols and phenol) served as model substances and ESTM was tuned towards the measurement of freely dissolved concentrations (C(free)). HF membrane modules were constructed using thin-walled membrane, 1-m module length and low packing density in order to optimise the uptake kinetics of the analytes into the acceptor solution. Such custom made devices were tested and compared to commercially available modules. The former modules performed best for continuous ESTIM. The custom made modules provided steady-state equilibrium within 20-40 min and enrichment that was in general agreement with calculated distribution ratios between acceptor and sample. In experiments during which sample concentration was changed, acceptor response time to decreased sample concentration was around 30 min for custom built modules. In the presence of commercial humic acids, analytes showed lower steady-state enrichment, which is due to a decrease in C(free). Continuous ESTM may be automated and is suggested for use in online determination of C(free) of pollutants and studies on sorption of pollutants. Future studies should include optimisation of the membrane liquid and factors regarding the residence time of the acceptor solution in the fibre lumen. Qualitative aspects of DOM should also be included, as natural DOM can be fractionated. C(free) could be correlated to DOM properties that have previously been shown to influence sorption, such as aromaticity, carboxylic acid content and molecular size. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "Membrane extraction, Equilibrium sampling, Freely dissolved concentration, Hollow fibre, Continuous extraction, Liquid chromatography",
author = "Niklas Larsson and Karl Utterback and Lars Tor{\"a}ng and Johan Risberg and Per Gustafsson and Philipp Mayer and J{\"o}nsson, {Jan {\AA}ke}",
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Equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTM) of acidic organic pollutants using hollow fibre modules in continuous steady-state mode. / Larsson, Niklas; Utterback, Karl; Toräng, Lars; Risberg, Johan; Gustafsson, Per; Mayer, Philipp; Jönsson, Jan Åke.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 76, No. 9, 2009, p. 1213-1220.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTM) of acidic organic pollutants using hollow fibre modules in continuous steady-state mode

AU - Larsson, Niklas

AU - Utterback, Karl

AU - Toräng, Lars

AU - Risberg, Johan

AU - Gustafsson, Per

AU - Mayer, Philipp

AU - Jönsson, Jan Åke

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Hollow fibre (HF) membrane modules were applied in continuous mode for equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTIM) of polar organic pollutants. Phenolic compounds (chlorophenols, cresols and phenol) served as model substances and ESTM was tuned towards the measurement of freely dissolved concentrations (C(free)). HF membrane modules were constructed using thin-walled membrane, 1-m module length and low packing density in order to optimise the uptake kinetics of the analytes into the acceptor solution. Such custom made devices were tested and compared to commercially available modules. The former modules performed best for continuous ESTIM. The custom made modules provided steady-state equilibrium within 20-40 min and enrichment that was in general agreement with calculated distribution ratios between acceptor and sample. In experiments during which sample concentration was changed, acceptor response time to decreased sample concentration was around 30 min for custom built modules. In the presence of commercial humic acids, analytes showed lower steady-state enrichment, which is due to a decrease in C(free). Continuous ESTM may be automated and is suggested for use in online determination of C(free) of pollutants and studies on sorption of pollutants. Future studies should include optimisation of the membrane liquid and factors regarding the residence time of the acceptor solution in the fibre lumen. Qualitative aspects of DOM should also be included, as natural DOM can be fractionated. C(free) could be correlated to DOM properties that have previously been shown to influence sorption, such as aromaticity, carboxylic acid content and molecular size. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - Hollow fibre (HF) membrane modules were applied in continuous mode for equilibrium sampling through membranes (ESTIM) of polar organic pollutants. Phenolic compounds (chlorophenols, cresols and phenol) served as model substances and ESTM was tuned towards the measurement of freely dissolved concentrations (C(free)). HF membrane modules were constructed using thin-walled membrane, 1-m module length and low packing density in order to optimise the uptake kinetics of the analytes into the acceptor solution. Such custom made devices were tested and compared to commercially available modules. The former modules performed best for continuous ESTIM. The custom made modules provided steady-state equilibrium within 20-40 min and enrichment that was in general agreement with calculated distribution ratios between acceptor and sample. In experiments during which sample concentration was changed, acceptor response time to decreased sample concentration was around 30 min for custom built modules. In the presence of commercial humic acids, analytes showed lower steady-state enrichment, which is due to a decrease in C(free). Continuous ESTM may be automated and is suggested for use in online determination of C(free) of pollutants and studies on sorption of pollutants. Future studies should include optimisation of the membrane liquid and factors regarding the residence time of the acceptor solution in the fibre lumen. Qualitative aspects of DOM should also be included, as natural DOM can be fractionated. C(free) could be correlated to DOM properties that have previously been shown to influence sorption, such as aromaticity, carboxylic acid content and molecular size. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - Membrane extraction

KW - Equilibrium sampling

KW - Freely dissolved concentration

KW - Hollow fibre

KW - Continuous extraction

KW - Liquid chromatography

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.06.010

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.06.010

M3 - Journal article

VL - 76

SP - 1213

EP - 1220

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

IS - 9

ER -