Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with coconut oil was conducted by applying a dual lipase system in comparison with individual lipase-catalyzed reactions. The results indicated that a synergistic effect occurred for many lipase combinations, but largely depending on the lipase species mixed and their ratios. The combination of Lipozyme TL IM and RM IM was found to generate a positive synergistic action at all test mixing ratios. Only equivalent amount mixtures of Lipozyme TL IM with Novozym 435 or Lipozyme RM IM with Novozym 435 produced a significant synergistic effect as well as the enhanced degree of interesterification. The interesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM mixed with thermally inactivated immobilized lipase preparations indicated that the carrier property may play an important role in affecting the interaction of two mixed lipases and the subsequent reactions. A dual enzyme system, consisting of immobilized lipases and a non-immobilized one (Lipase AK), in most cases apparently endows the free lipase with a considerably enhanced activity. 70% Lipase AK mixed with 30% immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TL IM, RM IM and Novozym 435) can achieve an increase in activity greater than 100% over the theoretical value when the reaction proceeds for 2 h. The co-immobilization action of the carrier of the immobilized lipases towards the free lipase was proposed as being one of the reasons leading to the synergistic effect and this has been experimentally verified by a reaction catalyzed by a Lipase AK-inactivated preparation. No apparently synergistic effect of the combinations of Lipozyme TL IM and RM IM was observed when the dual enzyme systems applied to the continuous reaction performed in a packed bed reactor. In brief, this work demonstrated the possibility of increasing the reaction rate or enhancing the degree of conversion by employing a dual lipase system as a biocatalyst.
- interesterification degree
- dual lipase system
- synergistic effect
- enzymatic interesterification