Environmental studies of anthropogenic radionuclides in Greenland over four decades are reported. The studies have comprised the marine as well as the terrestrial environments and emphasis has been laid on measurements of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Th, temporal and the spatial trends of these radionuclides are described. The radiation exposure from consumption of locally produced diets has been calculated from consumption rates and the infinite time integrated levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in the various food products. Compared with most other Arctic people, the Greenlanders have received relatively low doses from anthropogenic radionuclides. There are several reasons for this, first of all, because of the relatively high consumption of marine products compared with terrestrial products. Secondly, because winter slaughtering of reindeer is less frequent in Greenland than in other Arctic countries and Greenland reindeer consume, in general, less lichen than most other Arctic reindeer, and thirdly, because the transfer from deposition to lichen in Greenland seems lower than in other Arctic areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.