Enhanced Transepithelial Permeation of Gallic Acid and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate across Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells Using Electrospun Xanthan Nanofibers

Adele Faralli, Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush, Ana Carina Loureiro Mendes, Ioannis S. Chronakis*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Electrospun xanthan polysaccharide nanofibers (X) were developed as an encapsulation and delivery system of the poorly absorbed polyphenol compounds, gallic acid (GA) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrospun nanofibers, and controlled release studies were performed at pH 6.5 and 7.4 in saline buffer, suggesting that the release of polyphenols from xanthan nanofibers follows a non-Fickian mechanism. Furthermore, the X-GA and X-EGCG nanofibers were incubated with Caco-2 cells, and the cell viability, transepithelial transport, and permeability properties across cell monolayers were investigated. An increase of GA and EGCG permeability was observed when the polyphenols were loaded into xanthan nanofibers, compared to the free compounds. The observed in vitro permeability enhancement of GA and EGCG was induced by the presence of the polysaccharide nanofibers, which successfully inhibited efflux transporters, as well as by tight junctions opening.
Original languageEnglish
Article number155
JournalMolecular Pharmaceutics
Issue number4
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Xanthan gum
  • Electrospinning
  • Gallic acid
  • (−)-epigallocatechin gallate
  • Permeability

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