Engineering the surface structure of nanomaterials is of great importance for applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, unique rutile TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile solution and subsequent thermal annealing method. Each particle surface has been etched to form pits with an average size of 2-5 nm, producing abundant steps and vacancies. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the yielded rutile TiO2 nanoparticle electrode exhibits a maximum specific capacity of ∼145 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.5C (1C = 335 A g-1) with outstanding charge/discharge rate capability (∼102 mA h g-1 at 5C) and good cycling performance.
Huang, J., Fang, F., Huang, G., Sun, H., Zhu, J., & Yu, R. (2016). Engineering the surface of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles with quantum pits towards excellent lithium storage. RSC Advances, 6(70), 66197-66203. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6ra08629b