Energy Use in Organic, Green and Conventional Pear Producing Systems-Cases from China

Y. Liu, V. Langer, Henning Høgh Jensen, H. Egelyng

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy consumption between the production of certified organic pear, green food certified pear, and conventional pear in two areas in China. Data were collected from interviews with farmers during 2007 and 2008. Energy inputs were significantly higher in organic systems compared with conventional and green systems. Fertilizer was the most important contributor to energy consumption in all three farming systems. Three calculation methods for energy value of manure have been found in the literature: substitution method, by-product method, and thermal method. The choice of various calculation methods for estimating the energy value of manure turns out to have great influence on the results in terms of energy inputs and energy efficiency. Additionally, energy inputs and energy efficiency were also influenced by other agricultural inputs, such as machinery and corresponding fossil fuels, human labor, etc. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sustainable Agriculture
Issue number5-6
Pages (from-to)630-646
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy analysis
  • Energy cost of manure
  • Organic pear
  • Conventional pear
  • Green food certified pear


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