Energy supply modelling of a low-CO 2 emitting energy system: Case study of a Danish municipality

Dadi Þorsteinn Sveinbjörnsson, Sara Ben Amer-Allam, Anders Bavnhøj Hansen, Loui Algren, Allan Schrøder Pedersen

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Abstract

Municipal activities play an important role in national and global CO2-emission reduction efforts, with Nordic countries at the forefront thanks to their energy planning tradition and high penetration of renewable energy sources. In this work, we present a case study of the Danish municipality of Sønderborg, whose aim is to reach zero net CO2 emissions by 2029. Sønderborg has an official strategic plan towards 2029, which we compared with four alternative scenarios to investigate how the municipality could approach its target in the most energy-efficient and cost-effective way while simultaneously keeping biomass and waste consumption close to the limits of the locally available residual resources.We modelled all sectors of the energy system on the municipal scale, applying a broad range of energy conversion technologies, including advanced biomass conversion technologies and reversible electrolysis. We constructed five scenarios, each representing a different energy mix for Sønderborg’s energy system in 2029. We modelled these scenarios using the mixed-integer linear optimization tool Sifre. We compared the results for the five scenarios using four indicators: annual total system cost, total energy system efficiency, annual net system CO2 emissions and total annual biomass consumption.The results show that scenarios with a high degree of electrification perform better on the selected indicators than scenarios with a high degree of biomass utilization. Moreover, the incorporation of advanced conversion technologies such as electrolysis, fuel cells and methanol production further reduces both the total system cost and net CO2 of the highly electrified energy system. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrates that scenarios with a low biomass consumption and a high degree of electrification are less dependent on changes in energy prices.We conclude that in order to achieve their CO2 emission goals in the most energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable way, municipalities similar to Sønderborg should compare a wide range of energy system configurations, for example, scenarios with a high degree of electrification and a limited biomass use.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Energy
Volume195
Pages (from-to)922-941
ISSN0306-2619
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Energy system modelling
  • Urban energy scenarios
  • Renewable energy
  • Mixed-integer linear optimization
  • Energy conversion
  • Electrolysis

Cite this

Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn ; Ben Amer-Allam, Sara ; Hansen, Anders Bavnhøj ; Algren, Loui ; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder. / Energy supply modelling of a low-CO 2 emitting energy system: Case study of a Danish municipality. In: Applied Energy. 2017 ; Vol. 195. pp. 922-941.
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abstract = "Municipal activities play an important role in national and global CO2-emission reduction efforts, with Nordic countries at the forefront thanks to their energy planning tradition and high penetration of renewable energy sources. In this work, we present a case study of the Danish municipality of S{\o}nderborg, whose aim is to reach zero net CO2 emissions by 2029. S{\o}nderborg has an official strategic plan towards 2029, which we compared with four alternative scenarios to investigate how the municipality could approach its target in the most energy-efficient and cost-effective way while simultaneously keeping biomass and waste consumption close to the limits of the locally available residual resources.We modelled all sectors of the energy system on the municipal scale, applying a broad range of energy conversion technologies, including advanced biomass conversion technologies and reversible electrolysis. We constructed five scenarios, each representing a different energy mix for S{\o}nderborg’s energy system in 2029. We modelled these scenarios using the mixed-integer linear optimization tool Sifre. We compared the results for the five scenarios using four indicators: annual total system cost, total energy system efficiency, annual net system CO2 emissions and total annual biomass consumption.The results show that scenarios with a high degree of electrification perform better on the selected indicators than scenarios with a high degree of biomass utilization. Moreover, the incorporation of advanced conversion technologies such as electrolysis, fuel cells and methanol production further reduces both the total system cost and net CO2 of the highly electrified energy system. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrates that scenarios with a low biomass consumption and a high degree of electrification are less dependent on changes in energy prices.We conclude that in order to achieve their CO2 emission goals in the most energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable way, municipalities similar to S{\o}nderborg should compare a wide range of energy system configurations, for example, scenarios with a high degree of electrification and a limited biomass use.",
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Energy supply modelling of a low-CO 2 emitting energy system: Case study of a Danish municipality. / Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Ben Amer-Allam, Sara; Hansen, Anders Bavnhøj; Algren, Loui ; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder.

In: Applied Energy, Vol. 195, 2017, p. 922-941.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

AU - Ben Amer-Allam, Sara

AU - Hansen, Anders Bavnhøj

AU - Algren, Loui

AU - Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

PY - 2017

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N2 - Municipal activities play an important role in national and global CO2-emission reduction efforts, with Nordic countries at the forefront thanks to their energy planning tradition and high penetration of renewable energy sources. In this work, we present a case study of the Danish municipality of Sønderborg, whose aim is to reach zero net CO2 emissions by 2029. Sønderborg has an official strategic plan towards 2029, which we compared with four alternative scenarios to investigate how the municipality could approach its target in the most energy-efficient and cost-effective way while simultaneously keeping biomass and waste consumption close to the limits of the locally available residual resources.We modelled all sectors of the energy system on the municipal scale, applying a broad range of energy conversion technologies, including advanced biomass conversion technologies and reversible electrolysis. We constructed five scenarios, each representing a different energy mix for Sønderborg’s energy system in 2029. We modelled these scenarios using the mixed-integer linear optimization tool Sifre. We compared the results for the five scenarios using four indicators: annual total system cost, total energy system efficiency, annual net system CO2 emissions and total annual biomass consumption.The results show that scenarios with a high degree of electrification perform better on the selected indicators than scenarios with a high degree of biomass utilization. Moreover, the incorporation of advanced conversion technologies such as electrolysis, fuel cells and methanol production further reduces both the total system cost and net CO2 of the highly electrified energy system. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrates that scenarios with a low biomass consumption and a high degree of electrification are less dependent on changes in energy prices.We conclude that in order to achieve their CO2 emission goals in the most energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable way, municipalities similar to Sønderborg should compare a wide range of energy system configurations, for example, scenarios with a high degree of electrification and a limited biomass use.

AB - Municipal activities play an important role in national and global CO2-emission reduction efforts, with Nordic countries at the forefront thanks to their energy planning tradition and high penetration of renewable energy sources. In this work, we present a case study of the Danish municipality of Sønderborg, whose aim is to reach zero net CO2 emissions by 2029. Sønderborg has an official strategic plan towards 2029, which we compared with four alternative scenarios to investigate how the municipality could approach its target in the most energy-efficient and cost-effective way while simultaneously keeping biomass and waste consumption close to the limits of the locally available residual resources.We modelled all sectors of the energy system on the municipal scale, applying a broad range of energy conversion technologies, including advanced biomass conversion technologies and reversible electrolysis. We constructed five scenarios, each representing a different energy mix for Sønderborg’s energy system in 2029. We modelled these scenarios using the mixed-integer linear optimization tool Sifre. We compared the results for the five scenarios using four indicators: annual total system cost, total energy system efficiency, annual net system CO2 emissions and total annual biomass consumption.The results show that scenarios with a high degree of electrification perform better on the selected indicators than scenarios with a high degree of biomass utilization. Moreover, the incorporation of advanced conversion technologies such as electrolysis, fuel cells and methanol production further reduces both the total system cost and net CO2 of the highly electrified energy system. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrates that scenarios with a low biomass consumption and a high degree of electrification are less dependent on changes in energy prices.We conclude that in order to achieve their CO2 emission goals in the most energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable way, municipalities similar to Sønderborg should compare a wide range of energy system configurations, for example, scenarios with a high degree of electrification and a limited biomass use.

KW - Energy system modelling

KW - Urban energy scenarios

KW - Renewable energy

KW - Mixed-integer linear optimization

KW - Energy conversion

KW - Electrolysis

U2 - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.086

DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.086

M3 - Journal article

VL - 195

SP - 922

EP - 941

JO - Applied Energy

JF - Applied Energy

SN - 0306-2619

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