Energy Master Planning for Resilient Public Communities Best Practices from Denmark

Anders Dyrelund, Robert M. Neimeier, Hasmik Margaryan, Anders B. Moller

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleResearchpeer-review


When the oil embargo of1973 occurred, Denmark, which until that time was totally dependent on imported oil, initiated a long-term energy policy with the support ofa solid majority in the Danish Parliament that encouraged and adopted resilient and cost-effective energy solutions for the country as a whole. The Electricity and Heat Supply Acts of 1980 started a program ofnationwide energy planning that aimed to replace oil and to cost-effectively improve the country's energy resiliency and energy efficiency. The planning methodology took a team approach that involved the national energy Ministry, regions, and local authorities and utilities, and that established aplayingfieldfor regulated competition between the energy infrastructures of district heating and natural gas. In other words, Danish energy infrastructure was redeveloped as ifDenmark were a campus. As a natural result of this "campus approach," 100% of all investments in the infrastructure have been financed with the most competitive financing on the world market. Also, the power system, which is owned by state and consumer cooperatives, has been transitioningfrom centralized to local power generation; the use of underground electrical transmission and distribution cables has created one of the world's most reliable power sectors. Thus, emergency generators are only used for critical facilities. This process has helped create an environment that fosters innovation in state-of-the-art technologies and architectural design, which contribute to the International Energy Agency's "Energy in Buildings and Communities Program Annex 73," which focuses on developing guidelines and tools that support the planning of net zero energy resilient public communities and research performed under the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project EW18-D1-5281, "Technologies Integration to Achieve Resilient, Low-Energy Military Installations. " Four case studies illustrate this transition taking thefirst steps toward net zero resilient energy:
Original languageEnglish
JournalA S H R A E Transactions
Issue numberPt 1
Pages (from-to)629-646
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event2021 ASHRAE Virtual Winter Conference - Virtual
Duration: 9 Feb 202111 Feb 2021


Conference2021 ASHRAE Virtual Winter Conference


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