A novel approach, which is based on the analysis of sequences of images recorded using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and can be used to assess the reaction of a solid with a gas at elevated temperature, is illustrated for the reduction of a NiO/ceramic solid oxide fuel cell anode in 1.3mbar of H2. Three-window elemental maps and jump-ratio images of the O K edge and total inelastic mean free path images are recorded as a function of temperature and used to provide local and quantitative information about the reaction kinetics and the volume changes that result from the reaction. Under certain assumptions, the speed of progression of the reaction front in all three dimensions is obtained, thereby providing a three-dimensional understanding of the reaction.
- Environmental transmission electron microscopy
- Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy
- Solid oxide fuel cells
- Reaction mechanisms