Energy and Reserve under Distributed Energy Resources Management-Day-Ahead, Hour-Ahead and Real-Time

Tiago Soares, Marco Silva, Tiago Sousa, Hugo Morais, Zita Vale

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The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources based on renewable energy sources in distribution systems leads to a more complex management of power systems. Consequently, ancillary services become even more important to maintain the system security and reliability. This paper proposes and evaluates a generic model for day-ahead, intraday (hour-ahead) and real-time scheduling, considering the joint optimization of energy and reserve in the scope of the virtual power player concept. The model aims to minimize the operation costs in the point of view of one aggregator agent taking into account the balance of the distribution system. For each scheduling stage, previous scheduling results and updated forecasts are considered. An illustrative test case of a distribution network with 33 buses, considering a large penetration of distribution energy resources allows demonstrating the benefits of the proposed model.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1778
Issue number11
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • Distributed energy resources
  • Energy and reserve joint operation
  • Real-time operation
  • Reserve procurement
  • Virtual power player

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