The present paper reports, for the first time, the successful fabrication of layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH)-reinforced polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers by electrospinning. Either the LDH in carbonate form or an LDH organically modified with 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid (LDH-HA) were incorporated into PCL and electrospun using a voltage of 20 KV. The LDH-HA was prepared by an ionic exchange reaction from pristine LDH and encapsulated into PCL from acetone solution's at 15 wt %. The morphological analysis showed pure PCL fibers with an average diameter of 600 +/- 50 nm, and this dimension was maintained in the fibers With LDH, with the inorganic component residing outside the fibers and not exfoliated. At variance, the fibers with the LDH-HA showed a significantly lower average diameter in the range of 350 50 nm, indicating the improved electrospinnability of PCL. Moreover, the inorganic lamellae were exfoliated, as shown by X-rays and residing inside the nanofibers as demonstrated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The structural parameters, such as degradation temperature and crystallinity, were investigated for all the samples and correlated with the electrospinning process.