Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

Giuseppe Gallo, Giovanni Renzone, Emilia Palazzotto, Paolo Monciardini, Simona Arena, Teresa Faddetta, Anna Giardina, Rosa Alduina, Tilmann Weber, Fabio Sangiorgi, Alessandro Russo, Giovanni Spinelli, Margherita Sosio, Andrea Scaloni, Anna Maria Puglia

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The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlled by a complex regulatory and metabolic network that may be elucidated by the integration of genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic tools. Accordingly, an extensive evaluation of the proteomic changes associated with NAI-107 production was performed on Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 by combining two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and gene ontology approaches. Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 cultivations in a complex medium were characterized by stages of biomass accumulation (A) followed by biomass yield decline (D). NAI-107 production started at 90 h (A stage), reached a maximum at 140 h (D stage) and decreased thereafter. To reveal patterns of differentially represented proteins associated with NAI-107 production onset and maintenance, differential proteomic analyses were carried-out on biomass samples collected: i) before (66 h) and during (90 h) NAI-107 production at A stage; ii) during three time-points (117, 140, and 162 h) at D stage characterized by different profiles of NAI-107 yield accumulation (117 and 140 h) and decrement (162 h). Regulatory, metabolic and unknown-function proteins, were identified and functionally clustered, revealing that nutritional signals, regulatory cascades and primary metabolism shift-down trigger the accumulation of protein components involved in nitrogen and phosphate metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis/maturation, lipid metabolism, osmotic stress response, multi-drug resistance, and NAI-107 transport. The stimulating role on physiological differentiation of a TetR-like regulator, originally identified in this study, was confirmed by the construction of an over-expressing strain. Finally, the possible role of cellular response to membrane stability alterations and of multi-drug resistance ABC transporters as additional self-resistance mechanisms toward the lantibiotic was confirmed by proteomic and confocal microscopy experiments on a Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 lantibiotic-null producer strain which was exposed to an externally-added amount of NAI-107 during growth. This study provides a net contribution to the elucidation of the regulatory, metabolic and molecular patterns controlling physiological differentiation in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024, supporting the relevance of proteomics in revealing protein players of antibiotic biosynthesis in actinomycetes.
Original languageEnglish
JournalB M C Genomics
Issue number42
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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