Electrokinetics is being applied in combination with common insituremediation technologies, e.g. permeable reactive barriers, bioremediation and in-situ chemical oxidation, to overcome experienced limitations in remediation of chlorinated ethenes in low-permeable subsurface soils. The purpose of this review is to evaluate state-of-theart for identification of major knowledge gaps to obtain robust and successful field-implementations. Some of the major knowledge gaps include the behavior and influence of induced transient changes in soil systems, transport velocities of chlorinated ethenes, and significance of site-specific parameters on transport velocities, e.g. heterogeneous soils and hydrogeochemistry. Furthermore, the various ways of reporting voltage distribution and transport rates complicate the comparison of transport velocities across studies. It was found, that for the combined EK-techniques, it is important to control the pH and redox changes caused by electrolysis for steady transport, uniform distribution of the electric field etc. Specifically for electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation, delivery of lactate and biodegrading bacteria is of the same order of magnitude. This review shows that enhancement of remediation technologies can be achieved by electrokinetics, but major knowledge gaps must be examined to mature EK as robust methods for successful remediation of chlorinated ethene contaminated sites.
- Chlorinated ethenes
- Low permeable soil
- Transport velosities
Ottosen, L. M., Larsen, T. H., Jensen, P. E., Kirkelund, G. M., Kerrn-Jespersen, H., Tuxen, N., & Hyldegaard, B. H. (2019). Electrokinetics applied in remediation of subsurface soil contaminated with chlorinated ethenes – A review. Chemosphere, 235, 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.075