Electrochemical Performance of Dual-layer Carbon Electrodes for Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries

Baichen Liu, Salvatore De Angelis, Vedrana Andersen Dahl, Søren Bredmose Simonsen, Johan Hjelm*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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Recognizing the urgent need for further cost reduction to drive broad adoption of redox flow batteries, it is critical to improve the reactor performance. Improved performance leads to higher efficiency, potential for a decrease of the stack size, and reduced capital cost. As one of the main contributors to reactor internal resistance, porous electrodes with properly designed structures and optimized physicochemical properties offer a pathway to reduced voltage losses, including kinetic and concentration overpotentials. Recently, carbon cloth electrodes were explored in flow battery applications owing to their bimodal pore size distributions, which opens a potential opportunity for improved mass transport behavior. Although the unique woven structure of cloth provides flexibility in the electrode design, finding an optimal trade-off between abundant electrolyte penetration pathways and a high active surface area is still challenging. In the present study, we investigate a duallayer electrode configuration to meet the requirements of high active surface area and low mass transport resistance. A carbon cloth was placed close to the flow plate to serve as an electrolyte distributor to ensure efficient mass transport in a lateral flow-through configuration, and a carbon paper sub-layer was placed near the membrane to provide a high density of reaction sites. Overall, the results show that the proposed strategy is an effective way to achieve high electrochemical performance and low pressure drop. It can be regarded as a promising approach for boosting system efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnergy Proceedings : Energy Transitions toward Carbon Neutrality: Part IV
Number of pages6
Publication date2024
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Event15th International Conference on Applied Energy - Doha, Qatar
Duration: 3 Dec 20237 Dec 2023
Conference number: 15


Conference15th International Conference on Applied Energy
SeriesEnergy Proceedings


  • Woven carbon electrode
  • Mass transport
  • Lattice-Boltzmann method
  • Symmetric cell
  • Redox flow battery


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