Electric bus planning & scheduling: A review of related problems and methodologies

Shyam S.G. Perumal*, Richard M. Lusby, Jesper Larsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

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Electrification of bus fleets in most cities is expected to rise due to its significant environmental benefits. However, electric buses have limited driving range and long recharging times. Additionally, electric buses require special charging infrastructure, which overall makes them less flexible than conventional diesel buses. Due to the limitations of the electric bus technologies, further adjustments have to be made to the current bus transport planning problems. The scheduling of electric vehicles is recognized as a fast-growing area of research. In this paper, we review 43 articles related to the electric bus technologies and give an overview of the different problems in the electric bus planning process (strategic, tactical and operational). The different problems are: 1) investment of electric bus fleet and charging infrastructure, 2) placement of charging infrastructure, 3) the electric vehicle scheduling problem (E-VSP) and 4) the charging scheduling problem. Given a set of timetabled trips and recharging stations, the E-VSP is concerned with finding a vehicle schedule that covers the trips and satisfies the driving range and recharging requirements of electric buses while minimizing operational cost. A detailed literature review of the constraints associated with the E-VSP and the solution approaches proposed to solve it is given. Rescheduling aspects or considerations of robustness for scheduling of electric vehicles is identified as a future area of research. Furthermore, integrated electric bus planning is considered as a crucial area of research and integrated approaches could further improve the efficiency of electric bus transport systems.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Number of pages19
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Transportation
  • Vehicle scheduling
  • Electric buses
  • Literature Review


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