Efficient DCT-based secret key generation for the Internet of Things

George Margelis, Xenofon Fafoutis*, George Oikonomou, Robert Piechocki, Theo Tryfonas, Paul Thomas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101744
JournalAd Hoc Networks
Volume92
Number of pages11
ISSN1570-8705
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • IoT Security
  • Physical layer security
  • Secret key generation

Cite this

Margelis, G., Fafoutis, X., Oikonomou, G., Piechocki, R., Tryfonas, T., & Thomas, P. (2019). Efficient DCT-based secret key generation for the Internet of Things. Ad Hoc Networks, 92, [101744]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.08.014
Margelis, George ; Fafoutis, Xenofon ; Oikonomou, George ; Piechocki, Robert ; Tryfonas, Theo ; Thomas, Paul. / Efficient DCT-based secret key generation for the Internet of Things. In: Ad Hoc Networks. 2019 ; Vol. 92.
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abstract = "Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.",
keywords = "IEEE 802.15.4, Internet of Things (IoT), IoT Security, Physical layer security, Secret key generation",
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Margelis, G, Fafoutis, X, Oikonomou, G, Piechocki, R, Tryfonas, T & Thomas, P 2019, 'Efficient DCT-based secret key generation for the Internet of Things', Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 92, 101744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.08.014

Efficient DCT-based secret key generation for the Internet of Things. / Margelis, George; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Oikonomou, George; Piechocki, Robert; Tryfonas, Theo; Thomas, Paul.

In: Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 92, 101744, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Efficient DCT-based secret key generation for the Internet of Things

AU - Margelis, George

AU - Fafoutis, Xenofon

AU - Oikonomou, George

AU - Piechocki, Robert

AU - Tryfonas, Theo

AU - Thomas, Paul

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AB - Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.

KW - IEEE 802.15.4

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