Efficiency of stormwater control measures for combined sewer retrofitting under varying rain conditions: Quantifying the Three Points Approach (3PA)

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We present a method to assess and communicate the efficiency of stormwater control measures for retrofitting existing urban areas. The tool extends the Three Points Approach to quantitatively distinguish three rainfall domains: (A) rainwater resource utilisation, (B) urban stormwater drainage pipe design, and (C) pluvial flood mitigation. Methods for calculating efficiencies are defined recognizing that rainfall is both a valuable resource and a potential problem. Efficiencies are quantified in relation to rainfall volume, supplied potable water volume and volume of wastewater treated. A case study from Denmark is used to illustrate how the efficiency varies between the rainfall domains. The method provides a means for communicating some important quantitative aspects of stormwater control measures among engineers, planners and decision makers working with management of water resources, stormwater drainage and flood risks.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science & Policy
Pages (from-to)19-26
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Stormwater control measures
  • Stormwater management
  • Three point approach

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