Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs

Charlotte S. Kristensen, Lise Kirstine Kvisgaard, Maciej Pawlowski, S. Holmgaard Carlsen, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard, Anette Bøtner, T. Stadejek, Svend Haugegaard, L.E. Larsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Abstract

    The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1–3 (N = 18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N = 12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1–4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected in nasal swabs until DPV 7–14. No overt clinical signs were observed after challenge. PRRSV-2 vaccination resulted in a clear reduction in viral load in serum after PRRSV-2 challenge, whereas there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None of the vaccines decreased the viral load in the lungs at necropsy. In conclusion, simultaneous vaccination with MLV vaccines containing PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 elicited responses comparable to single vaccination and the commercial PRRSV vaccines protected only partially against challenge with heterologous strains. Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalVaccine
    Volume36
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)227-236
    ISSN0264-410X
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

    Keywords

    • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
    • Vaccination
    • Swine
    • PRRSV

    Cite this

    Kristensen, Charlotte S. ; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine ; Pawlowski, Maciej ; Holmgaard Carlsen, S. ; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane ; Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg ; Bøtner, Anette ; Stadejek, T. ; Haugegaard, Svend ; Larsen, L.E. / Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs. In: Vaccine. 2018 ; Vol. 36, No. 2. pp. 227-236.
    @article{855f4165b11f496a9847667fdb3a06c0,
    title = "Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs",
    abstract = "The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1–3 (N = 18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N = 12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1–4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected in nasal swabs until DPV 7–14. No overt clinical signs were observed after challenge. PRRSV-2 vaccination resulted in a clear reduction in viral load in serum after PRRSV-2 challenge, whereas there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None of the vaccines decreased the viral load in the lungs at necropsy. In conclusion, simultaneous vaccination with MLV vaccines containing PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 elicited responses comparable to single vaccination and the commercial PRRSV vaccines protected only partially against challenge with heterologous strains. Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types.",
    keywords = "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Vaccination, Swine, PRRSV",
    author = "Kristensen, {Charlotte S.} and Kvisgaard, {Lise Kirstine} and Maciej Pawlowski and {Holmgaard Carlsen}, S. and Hjulsager, {Charlotte Kristiane} and Heegaard, {Peter Mikael Helweg} and Anette B{\o}tner and T. Stadejek and Svend Haugegaard and L.E. Larsen",
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    year = "2018",
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    language = "English",
    volume = "36",
    pages = "227--236",
    journal = "Vaccine",
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    Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs. / Kristensen, Charlotte S.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Pawlowski, Maciej; Holmgaard Carlsen, S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg; Bøtner, Anette; Stadejek, T.; Haugegaard, Svend; Larsen, L.E.

    In: Vaccine, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2018, p. 227-236.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Efficacy and safety of simultaneous vaccination with two modified live virus vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2 in pigs

    AU - Kristensen, Charlotte S.

    AU - Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    AU - Pawlowski, Maciej

    AU - Holmgaard Carlsen, S.

    AU - Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    AU - Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg

    AU - Bøtner, Anette

    AU - Stadejek, T.

    AU - Haugegaard, Svend

    AU - Larsen, L.E.

    N1 - This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

    PY - 2018

    Y1 - 2018

    N2 - The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1–3 (N = 18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N = 12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1–4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected in nasal swabs until DPV 7–14. No overt clinical signs were observed after challenge. PRRSV-2 vaccination resulted in a clear reduction in viral load in serum after PRRSV-2 challenge, whereas there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None of the vaccines decreased the viral load in the lungs at necropsy. In conclusion, simultaneous vaccination with MLV vaccines containing PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 elicited responses comparable to single vaccination and the commercial PRRSV vaccines protected only partially against challenge with heterologous strains. Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types.

    AB - The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1–3 (N = 18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N = 12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1–4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected in nasal swabs until DPV 7–14. No overt clinical signs were observed after challenge. PRRSV-2 vaccination resulted in a clear reduction in viral load in serum after PRRSV-2 challenge, whereas there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None of the vaccines decreased the viral load in the lungs at necropsy. In conclusion, simultaneous vaccination with MLV vaccines containing PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 elicited responses comparable to single vaccination and the commercial PRRSV vaccines protected only partially against challenge with heterologous strains. Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types.

    KW - Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    KW - Vaccination

    KW - Swine

    KW - PRRSV

    U2 - 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.059

    DO - 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.059

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 36

    SP - 227

    EP - 236

    JO - Vaccine

    JF - Vaccine

    SN - 0264-410X

    IS - 2

    ER -