Effects of spironolactone on human blood mononuclear cells: mineralocorticoid receptor independent effects on gene expression and late apoptosis induction

Søren Ulrik Salling Sønder, Marianne Mikkelsen, Klaus Rieneck, Chris Juul Hedegaard, Klaus Bendtzen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

1 Spironolactone (SPIR) binds to cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and functions as an aldosterone antagonist. Recently, the drug was shown to have an early suppressive effect on several immunoactive and proinflammatory cytokines. 2 To elucidate the mechanism behind this, the four MR-binding steroids SPIR, canrenone, 7alpha-thiomethyl-spironolactone and aldosterone (ALDO) were investigated for effects on lipopolysaccharide- and phytohemagglutinin-A-activated human blood mononuclear cells. Gene expression was examined after 4 h using microarrays, and SPIR affected 1018 transcripts of the (=) 22,000 probed. In contrast, the SPIR-related steroids affected 17 or fewer transcripts. Combining SPIR and ALDO resulted in 940 affected transcripts, indicating that SPIR has an early gene-regulatory effect independent of MR. 3 The affected genes encode a large number of signalling proteins and receptors, including immunoinflammatory response genes and apoptosis and antiapoptosis genes. Apoptosis was evident in CD3-, CD14- and CD19-positive cells, but only after 18 h of exposure to SPIR. 4 The transcriptional network involving the differentially regulated genes was examined and the results indicate that SPIR affects genes controlled by the transcription factors NF-kappaB, CEBPbeta and MYC. 5 These observations provide new insight into the non-MR-mediated effects of SPIR.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Volume148
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)46-53
ISSN0007-1188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

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