The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.
- economic assessment
- rainwater harvesting
- urban water cycle management and planning
- water balance model