Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

Carson Odell Lee, Rasmus Boe-Hansen, Sanin Musovic, Barth F. Smets, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen, Philip John Binning

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Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot and the full-scale filter. Nitrification rates and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were quantified throughout the depth of the filter. The ammonium removal capacity of the filter was determined to be 3.4 g NH4–N m−3 h−1, which was 5 times greater than the average ammonium loading rate under reference operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria density were strongly stratified, with the highest removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria densities at the top of the filter. Cell specific ammonium oxidation rates were on average 0.6 × 102 ± 0.2 × 102 fg NH4–N h−1 cell−1. Our findings indicate that these rapid sand filters can safely remove both nitrite and ammonium over a larger range of loading rates than previously assumed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWater Research
Pages (from-to)226-236
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Ground water
  • Ammonium removal
  • Loading
  • Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea
  • Nitrite


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