Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

Burkard T. Watermann, Triantafyllos A. Albanis, Silvana Galassi, Katarina Gnass, Kresten Ole Kusk, Vasilios A. Sakkas, Leah Wollenberger

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) for 21 days covering a full life cycle are described. Histological alterations were studied with a focus on reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands. Exposure to ≥1.2 µg L−1 CPA caused degeneration of spermatocytes and deformation of the spermatophore in males. In a single male exposed to 33 µg L−1 CPA, an ovotestis was observed. In CPA exposed females, enhancement of oogenesis, increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation occurred. Exposure of males to ≥12 µg L−1 LIN caused degenerative effects in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and at 4.7 µg L−1 LIN, the spermatophore wall displayed an irregular formation. In LIN exposed females, no such structural alterations were found; however, the proliferation index was reduced at 29 µg L−1 LIN. At an exposure concentration of ≥100 µg L−1 VIN, distinct areas in male gonad were stimulated, whereas others displayed a disturbed spermatogenesis and a deformed spermatophore wall. In VIN exposed female A. tonsa, no effects were observed. Male A. tonsa exposed to p,p'-DDE displayed an impairment of spermatogenesis in all stages with increased degrees of apoptosis. In p,p'-DDE-exposed females, a statistical significant increase of the proliferation index and an intensification of oogenesis were observed at 0.0088 µg L−1.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering
    Issue number13
    Pages (from-to)1111-1120
    Number of pages10
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


    • Environmental Engineering
    • Comparative pathology
    • crustacea
    • endocrine disruption
    • histology
    • invertebrate
    • Cell death
    • Ethylene
    • Histology
    • Life cycle
    • Crustacea
    • Endocrine disruption
    • Environmental concentration
    • Exposure concentration
    • Proliferation index
    • Reproductive organs
    • Structural alterations
    • Fungicides


    Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this