Effects of abrupt salinity increase on nitrification processes in freshwater moving bed biofilters

John Peter Hewa Kinyage*, Per Bovbjerg Pedersen, Lars-Flemming Pedersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The nitrification process is a widely used biological approach responsible for ammonia and nitrite removal in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) biofilters. Given this pivotal role, the influence of different water quality parameter on nitrification efficiency is important information for RAS operations. One influencing parameter is salinity, and salinity fluctuations in freshwater RAS biofilters are reported to affect the nitrifying bacteria. This study investigated the effects of abrupt increase in salinity in freshwater RAS on substrate-dependent (1’-order) as well as substrate independent (0’-order) nitrification rates. A 100% inhibition was found for surface specific removal (STR) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and surface specific nitrite removal (SNR) when salinity was abruptly increased to 25‰ and above. A fast turnover (i.e. steep decline in [NH4-N+] and [NO2-N"]) were observed at lower salinities (≤10‰), while limited/no degradation of either ammonia or nitrite was seen at salinities above 25‰. At low substrate loading (1’-order process), removal rate constants (k1a) of 0.22 and 0.23 m d-1 were observed for ammonia and nitrite degradation, respectively, declining to 0.01 m d-1 when adding marine RAS water increasing the salinity to 15‰. Similar observations followed at high nutrient loadings (0’-order process) with STR and SNR of 0.10 and 0.12 g N m-2 d-1, respectively, declining to 0.01 g N m-2 d-1 at 15‰. When salinities of 25‰ and 35‰ were applied, neither TAN nor nitrite degradation was seen. The results thus demonstrate a pronounced effect of salinity changes when freshwater RAS biofilters are subjected to fast/abrupt changes in salinity. RAS facility operators should be aware of such potential effects and take relevant precautions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAquacultural Engineering
Volume84
Pages (from-to)91-98
ISSN0144-8609
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Nitrification
  • Salinity
  • RAS
  • Biofilter
  • STR
  • SNR
  • k1a

Cite this

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title = "Effects of abrupt salinity increase on nitrification processes in freshwater moving bed biofilters",
abstract = "The nitrification process is a widely used biological approach responsible for ammonia and nitrite removal in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) biofilters. Given this pivotal role, the influence of different water quality parameter on nitrification efficiency is important information for RAS operations. One influencing parameter is salinity, and salinity fluctuations in freshwater RAS biofilters are reported to affect the nitrifying bacteria. This study investigated the effects of abrupt increase in salinity in freshwater RAS on substrate-dependent (1’-order) as well as substrate independent (0’-order) nitrification rates. A 100{\%} inhibition was found for surface specific removal (STR) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and surface specific nitrite removal (SNR) when salinity was abruptly increased to 25‰ and above. A fast turnover (i.e. steep decline in [NH4-N+] and [NO2-N{"}]) were observed at lower salinities (≤10‰), while limited/no degradation of either ammonia or nitrite was seen at salinities above 25‰. At low substrate loading (1’-order process), removal rate constants (k1a) of 0.22 and 0.23 m d-1 were observed for ammonia and nitrite degradation, respectively, declining to 0.01 m d-1 when adding marine RAS water increasing the salinity to 15‰. Similar observations followed at high nutrient loadings (0’-order process) with STR and SNR of 0.10 and 0.12 g N m-2 d-1, respectively, declining to 0.01 g N m-2 d-1 at 15‰. When salinities of 25‰ and 35‰ were applied, neither TAN nor nitrite degradation was seen. The results thus demonstrate a pronounced effect of salinity changes when freshwater RAS biofilters are subjected to fast/abrupt changes in salinity. RAS facility operators should be aware of such potential effects and take relevant precautions.",
keywords = "Nitrification, Salinity, RAS, Biofilter, STR, SNR, k1a",
author = "Kinyage, {John Peter Hewa} and Pedersen, {Per Bovbjerg} and Lars-Flemming Pedersen",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.12.005",
language = "English",
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pages = "91--98",
journal = "Aquacultural Engineering",
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}

Effects of abrupt salinity increase on nitrification processes in freshwater moving bed biofilters. / Kinyage, John Peter Hewa; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming.

In: Aquacultural Engineering, Vol. 84, 2019, p. 91-98.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of abrupt salinity increase on nitrification processes in freshwater moving bed biofilters

AU - Kinyage, John Peter Hewa

AU - Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

AU - Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The nitrification process is a widely used biological approach responsible for ammonia and nitrite removal in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) biofilters. Given this pivotal role, the influence of different water quality parameter on nitrification efficiency is important information for RAS operations. One influencing parameter is salinity, and salinity fluctuations in freshwater RAS biofilters are reported to affect the nitrifying bacteria. This study investigated the effects of abrupt increase in salinity in freshwater RAS on substrate-dependent (1’-order) as well as substrate independent (0’-order) nitrification rates. A 100% inhibition was found for surface specific removal (STR) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and surface specific nitrite removal (SNR) when salinity was abruptly increased to 25‰ and above. A fast turnover (i.e. steep decline in [NH4-N+] and [NO2-N"]) were observed at lower salinities (≤10‰), while limited/no degradation of either ammonia or nitrite was seen at salinities above 25‰. At low substrate loading (1’-order process), removal rate constants (k1a) of 0.22 and 0.23 m d-1 were observed for ammonia and nitrite degradation, respectively, declining to 0.01 m d-1 when adding marine RAS water increasing the salinity to 15‰. Similar observations followed at high nutrient loadings (0’-order process) with STR and SNR of 0.10 and 0.12 g N m-2 d-1, respectively, declining to 0.01 g N m-2 d-1 at 15‰. When salinities of 25‰ and 35‰ were applied, neither TAN nor nitrite degradation was seen. The results thus demonstrate a pronounced effect of salinity changes when freshwater RAS biofilters are subjected to fast/abrupt changes in salinity. RAS facility operators should be aware of such potential effects and take relevant precautions.

AB - The nitrification process is a widely used biological approach responsible for ammonia and nitrite removal in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) biofilters. Given this pivotal role, the influence of different water quality parameter on nitrification efficiency is important information for RAS operations. One influencing parameter is salinity, and salinity fluctuations in freshwater RAS biofilters are reported to affect the nitrifying bacteria. This study investigated the effects of abrupt increase in salinity in freshwater RAS on substrate-dependent (1’-order) as well as substrate independent (0’-order) nitrification rates. A 100% inhibition was found for surface specific removal (STR) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and surface specific nitrite removal (SNR) when salinity was abruptly increased to 25‰ and above. A fast turnover (i.e. steep decline in [NH4-N+] and [NO2-N"]) were observed at lower salinities (≤10‰), while limited/no degradation of either ammonia or nitrite was seen at salinities above 25‰. At low substrate loading (1’-order process), removal rate constants (k1a) of 0.22 and 0.23 m d-1 were observed for ammonia and nitrite degradation, respectively, declining to 0.01 m d-1 when adding marine RAS water increasing the salinity to 15‰. Similar observations followed at high nutrient loadings (0’-order process) with STR and SNR of 0.10 and 0.12 g N m-2 d-1, respectively, declining to 0.01 g N m-2 d-1 at 15‰. When salinities of 25‰ and 35‰ were applied, neither TAN nor nitrite degradation was seen. The results thus demonstrate a pronounced effect of salinity changes when freshwater RAS biofilters are subjected to fast/abrupt changes in salinity. RAS facility operators should be aware of such potential effects and take relevant precautions.

KW - Nitrification

KW - Salinity

KW - RAS

KW - Biofilter

KW - STR

KW - SNR

KW - k1a

U2 - 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.12.005

DO - 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.12.005

M3 - Journal article

VL - 84

SP - 91

EP - 98

JO - Aquacultural Engineering

JF - Aquacultural Engineering

SN - 0144-8609

ER -