Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT

Matteo Busi*, Jan Kehres, Mohamad Khalil, Ulrik Lund Olsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

We present Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (SCT) estimations of material properties directly from energy-dependent measurements of linear attenuation coefficients (LAC). X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is commonly utilized to characterize the internal properties of an object of interest. Dual-Energy X-ray CT allows material characterization into energy-independent physical properties such as Ze and electron density ρe. However, it is not robust in presence of dense materials and metal artifacts. We report on the performance of a method for system-independent characterization of materials that introduces a spectroscopic detector into X-ray CT, called spectral ρe/Ze estimation (SRZE). We benchmark the SRZE method against energy-integrated measurements in material classification tests, finding superior accuracy in the predictions. The advantage of this technique, over other methods for material characterization using x-ray CT, is that it does not require a set of reference materials for calibration. Moreover, the simultaneous detection of spectral features makes it robust to highly attenuating materials, since the energy intervals for which the attenuation is photon limited can easily be detected and excluded from the feature estimation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAnomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV
EditorsAmit Ashok , Joel A. Greenburg , Michael E. Gehm
Number of pages11
Volume10999
PublisherSPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication date2019
Article number1099903
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventSPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing 2019 - Baltimore, United States
Duration: 14 Apr 201918 Apr 2019

Conference

ConferenceSPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing 2019
CountryUnited States
CityBaltimore
Period14/04/201918/04/2019
SeriesProceedings of S P I E - International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN0277-786X

Keywords

  • Spectral X-ray CT
  • X-ray characterization
  • Effective atomic number
  • Electron density
  • MULTIX-ME100
  • Therat detection
  • Security screening

Cite this

Busi, M., Kehres, J., Khalil, M., & Olsen, U. L. (2019). Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT. In A. A., J. A. G., & M. E. G. (Eds.), Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV (Vol. 10999). [1099903] SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. Proceedings of S P I E - International Society for Optical Engineering https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2519851
Busi, Matteo ; Kehres, Jan ; Khalil, Mohamad ; Olsen, Ulrik Lund. / Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT. Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV. editor / Amit Ashok ; Joel A. Greenburg ; Michael E. Gehm. Vol. 10999 SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2019. (Proceedings of S P I E - International Society for Optical Engineering).
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title = "Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT",
abstract = "We present Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (SCT) estimations of material properties directly from energy-dependent measurements of linear attenuation coefficients (LAC). X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is commonly utilized to characterize the internal properties of an object of interest. Dual-Energy X-ray CT allows material characterization into energy-independent physical properties such as Ze and electron density ρe. However, it is not robust in presence of dense materials and metal artifacts. We report on the performance of a method for system-independent characterization of materials that introduces a spectroscopic detector into X-ray CT, called spectral ρe/Ze estimation (SRZE). We benchmark the SRZE method against energy-integrated measurements in material classification tests, finding superior accuracy in the predictions. The advantage of this technique, over other methods for material characterization using x-ray CT, is that it does not require a set of reference materials for calibration. Moreover, the simultaneous detection of spectral features makes it robust to highly attenuating materials, since the energy intervals for which the attenuation is photon limited can easily be detected and excluded from the feature estimation.",
keywords = "Spectral X-ray CT, X-ray characterization, Effective atomic number, Electron density, MULTIX-ME100, Therat detection, Security screening",
author = "Matteo Busi and Jan Kehres and Mohamad Khalil and Olsen, {Ulrik Lund}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1117/12.2519851",
language = "English",
volume = "10999",
editor = "{Amit Ashok} and {Joel A. Greenburg} and {Michael E. Gehm}",
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Busi, M, Kehres, J, Khalil, M & Olsen, UL 2019, Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT. in AA, JAG & MEG (eds), Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV. vol. 10999, 1099903, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, Proceedings of S P I E - International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing 2019, Baltimore, United States, 14/04/2019. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2519851

Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT. / Busi, Matteo; Kehres, Jan; Khalil, Mohamad; Olsen, Ulrik Lund.

Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV. ed. / Amit Ashok; Joel A. Greenburg; Michael E. Gehm. Vol. 10999 SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2019. 1099903 (Proceedings of S P I E - International Society for Optical Engineering).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT

AU - Busi, Matteo

AU - Kehres, Jan

AU - Khalil, Mohamad

AU - Olsen, Ulrik Lund

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - We present Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (SCT) estimations of material properties directly from energy-dependent measurements of linear attenuation coefficients (LAC). X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is commonly utilized to characterize the internal properties of an object of interest. Dual-Energy X-ray CT allows material characterization into energy-independent physical properties such as Ze and electron density ρe. However, it is not robust in presence of dense materials and metal artifacts. We report on the performance of a method for system-independent characterization of materials that introduces a spectroscopic detector into X-ray CT, called spectral ρe/Ze estimation (SRZE). We benchmark the SRZE method against energy-integrated measurements in material classification tests, finding superior accuracy in the predictions. The advantage of this technique, over other methods for material characterization using x-ray CT, is that it does not require a set of reference materials for calibration. Moreover, the simultaneous detection of spectral features makes it robust to highly attenuating materials, since the energy intervals for which the attenuation is photon limited can easily be detected and excluded from the feature estimation.

AB - We present Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (SCT) estimations of material properties directly from energy-dependent measurements of linear attenuation coefficients (LAC). X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is commonly utilized to characterize the internal properties of an object of interest. Dual-Energy X-ray CT allows material characterization into energy-independent physical properties such as Ze and electron density ρe. However, it is not robust in presence of dense materials and metal artifacts. We report on the performance of a method for system-independent characterization of materials that introduces a spectroscopic detector into X-ray CT, called spectral ρe/Ze estimation (SRZE). We benchmark the SRZE method against energy-integrated measurements in material classification tests, finding superior accuracy in the predictions. The advantage of this technique, over other methods for material characterization using x-ray CT, is that it does not require a set of reference materials for calibration. Moreover, the simultaneous detection of spectral features makes it robust to highly attenuating materials, since the energy intervals for which the attenuation is photon limited can easily be detected and excluded from the feature estimation.

KW - Spectral X-ray CT

KW - X-ray characterization

KW - Effective atomic number

KW - Electron density

KW - MULTIX-ME100

KW - Therat detection

KW - Security screening

U2 - 10.1117/12.2519851

DO - 10.1117/12.2519851

M3 - Article in proceedings

VL - 10999

BT - Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV

A2 - , Amit Ashok

A2 - , Joel A. Greenburg

A2 - , Michael E. Gehm

PB - SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering

ER -

Busi M, Kehres J, Khalil M, Olsen UL. Effective atomic number and electron density determination using spectral X-ray CT. In AA, JAG, MEG, editors, Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) IV. Vol. 10999. SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. 2019. 1099903. (Proceedings of S P I E - International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2519851