Effect of water hardness on peracetic acid toxicity to zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos

Pierre_André Marchand, David L. Strauss, Andreas Wienke, Lars-Flemming Pedersen, Thomas Meinelt

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The use of peracetic acid (PAA) in aquaculture has been suggested as an
alternative therapeutic agent. Few data are available concerning fish toxicity by PAA or factors that modify this toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of water hardness on the acute toxicity of PAA products to embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Embryos were exposed to PAA ranging from 0 to 9 mg/L in low-hardness (1.4 dH or 25 mg/L hardness as CaCO3), medium-hardness (14 dH or 250 mg/L hardness as CaCO3) and high-hardness (140 dH or 2,500 mg/L hardness as CaCO3) waters. The lowest LC50 value was 2.24 mg/L PAA in the low-hardness water, and the highest LC50 value was 7.14 mg/L PAA in the high-hardness water. Toxicity of PAA to embryos was found to be negatively correlated with water hardness. The pH decreased with increasing
concentrations of PAA, and the test waters were observed to become more acidic in low hardness. In conclusion, aquaculturists using PAA should pay attention to water hardness to avoid acidosis
Original languageEnglish
JournalAquaculture International
Pages (from-to)679-686
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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