Effect of vitamin D fortified foods on bone markers and muscle strength in women of Pakistani and Danish origin living in Denmark: a randomised controlled trial

Ida Marie Grønborg*, Inge Tetens, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Michael Kristensen, Rikke E. K. Larsen, Thanh L. L. Tran, Rikke Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

68 Downloads (Pure)


Deficient and insufficient vitamin D status (defined as serum 25(OH)D  50 nmol/L) is prevalent worldwide and associated with decreased muscle strength and poor bone health. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on bone markers and muscle strength among younger adult women at risk of vitamin D deficiency. A 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled winter intervention trial, providing 30 μg vitamin D3/day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread or similar placebo products. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin 18-50 years of age, living in Denmark, randomised into four groups stratified by ethnicity. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by LC-MS/MS and the secondary endpoints: four specific bone markers (osteocalcin (OC), Bone specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BALP), Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)) and three muscle strength measures (handgrip, knee extension strength, chair-standing), were assessed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD and subsequent linear ANCOVA models, adjusted for relevant covariates. Significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentration from 53.3 (17) to 77.8 (14) nmol/L and from 44.5 (21) to 54.7 (18) nmol/L among Danish and Pakistani women in the fortified groups, respectively (P 
Original languageEnglish
Article number82
Issue number1
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this