Syngas produced from thermochemical conversion of biomass has been given more attention because it can be converted to a variety of fuels and chemicals as substitutes for petroleum-based chemicals via the Fischer-Tropsch process. In this study, one wheat straw and its element content fluctuation in the feasible range are selected as samples first to study the effect of the biomass composition on the quality of syngas produced. Then, the thermochemical data (standard molar enthalpy of formation, standard molar entropy, and heat capacity) of samples are predicted by highly accurate prediction models. Thermochemical conversions of the samples are simulated by the Gibbs energy minimization method based on the results of thermochemical data prediction. At last, the effect of the biomass composition on the resource index (amounts of CO and H2 and ratio of H2/CO) and energy index (lower heat value) of syngas is calculated and analyzed. This study provides a method to obtain the relationship between the composition of biomass and the quality of syngas produced.