Effect of selection of pH in swimming pool on formation of chlorination by-products

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Chlorine is used as disinfection agent in public swimming pools, but also reacts with organic matter in the water forming chlorinat ed disinfection by-products. In order to evaluate the effect of choice of pHsetpoint in the pool we investigated the effect of chlorination of artificial body fluid analogue at different pH-values between 6 and 8. The formation of trihalomethans, haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles was measured. It was found that the formation of trihalomethans decreased with decreased pH. Haloacetic acid formation remained almost constant over the pH-range and haloacetonitrile formation increased with decreasing pH. As haloacetonitriles contributes the most to the genotoxicity of the water the predicted genotoxicity of the water was highest at the lowest pH value in the range tested. Adding bromine in the experiments resulted in decreased haloacetic acids formation and increased formation of haloacetonitriles and trihalomethans. Addition of bromide in the experiments resulted in a shift in the formation of DBP to more brominated DBPs which contributed to that the predicted genotoxicity of the water increased significantly regardless of the pH-level.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFourth international conference swimming pool & spa : Research and Development on Health, Air and Water Quality Aspects of the Man-made Recreational Water Environment
Number of pages195
Place of PublicationPorto
Publication date2011
ISBN (Print)9789899590724
Publication statusPublished - 2011
EventInternational conference swimming pool & spa - Porto, Portugal
Duration: 1 Jan 2011 → …
Conference number: 4


ConferenceInternational conference swimming pool & spa
CityPorto, Portugal
Period01/01/2011 → …


  • Bromide
  • Disinfection by-products
  • Ph
  • Trihalomethans
  • Haloacetonitriles

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