EdgeTC - a PBFT blockchain-based ETC scheme for smart cities

Wei Yang Chiu, Weizhi Meng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


To improve the quality of mobility and transportation in a smart city, Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) system has been widely implemented along toll roads, which can automatically collect the usage fee from vehicles. There are many advantages of using ETC systems, such as no need to prepare cash, no need to waste time waiting in a queue, and be able to improve the air quality at tollgate. However, there are still some challenges remained for existing ETC systems, in relation to data storage, trustworthiness and transparency. To address this issue, there is a need for building a unified, decentralized, and trusted data storing platform. Motivated by this demand, in this work, we introduce a blockchain-based ETC system called EdgeTC. Unlike most other blockchain-based ETC platforms that use PoW or PoS, our system uses PBFT to achieve relatively faster performance. In the evaluation, we compare the system performance between Ethereum-based and Hyperledger-based ETC. The results indicate that Ethereum-based system suffers efficiency problems when the chain becomes long, while Hyperledger-based ETC can maintain a stable time consumption during the transactions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPeer-to-Peer Networking and Applications
Pages (from-to)2874–2886
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Blockchain technology
  • Electronic toll collection (ETC)
  • PBFT
  • Smart city
  • Smart contract


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