Economic Model Predictive Control for Large-Scale and Distributed Energy Systems

Laura Standardi

Research output: Book/ReportPh.D. thesis

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In this thesis, we consider control strategies for large and distributed energy systems that are important for the implementation of smart grid technologies.  An electrical grid has to ensure reliability and avoid long-term interruptions in the power supply. Moreover, the share of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the smart grids is increasing. These energy sources bring uncertainty to the production due to their fluctuations. Hence,smart grids need suitable control systems that are able to continuously balance power production and consumption.  We apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC) strategy to optimise the economic performances of the energy systems and to balance the power production and consumption. In the case of large-scale energy systems, the electrical grid connects a high number of power units. Because of this, the related control problem involves a high number of variables and constraints and its solution requires high computational times. Energy systems have a hierarchical control framework and the controllers have to work in the time-scale required by their hierarchy level. Dedicated optimisation techniques efficiently solve the control problem and reduce computational time. We implement the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition technique to efficiently solve the EMPC problem.

The contributions of this thesis are primarily on:

Large-scale energy system

Smart-grids connect a high number of energy units. In such a large-scale scenario the energy units are independent and dynamically decoupled.  The mathematical model of the large-scale energy system embodies the decoupled dynamics of each power units. Moreover,all units of the grid contribute to the overall power production.

Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC)

This control strategy is an extension of the Model Predictive Control (MPC)strategy. Energy systems often involve stochastic variables due to the share of fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources (RESs). Moreover, the related control problems are multi variables and they are hard, or impossible, to split into single-input-single-output control systems. MPC strategy can handle multi variables control problems and it can embody stochastic variables. The Economic MPC (EMPC) policy optimises the economic performances of the process. In this work, we apply the EMPC to energy systems and it computes the control trajectory for each energy unit. This control policy minimises production costs and ensures that the power production satisfies the customers’ demand. The EMPC designs a linear control problem that has a block-angular constraints matrix and it has two sets of constraints. The independent dynamics of the energy units define the decoupling constraints sited on the diagonal.  The coupling constraints represent the common goal of all power units in the energy system and this is to satisfy the customers’ demand. The Dantzig-Wolfe optimisation technique applies to this structure of the constraints matrix in the view of fastening the control algorithm and increase its applicability.

Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition

The Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition solves the EMPC problem through a distributed optimisation technique. The EMPC problem via Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm computes the optimal input trajectory for each energy unit and reduces the computation times. Moreover, such a control algorithm applies to large-scale energy systems and the number of energy units does not affect the performances of the controller. In this thesis, we also investigate suboptimal solutions of the EMPC problem via modified versions of the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithms.  The feasibility of the suboptimal solutions suffices for stability. The goal of these modified Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithms is to reduce computation time in the solution of the EMPC problem.

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationKgs. Lyngby
PublisherTechnical University of Denmark
Number of pages179
Publication statusPublished - 2015
SeriesDTU Compute PHD-2014


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