Economic hardship over twenty-two consecutive years of adult life and markers of early ageing: physical capability, cognitive function and inflammation

Else Foverskov*, Gitte Lindved Petersen, Jolene Lee Masters Pedersen, Naja Hulvej Rod, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Helle Bruunsgaard, Rikke Lund

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This study assesses the associations between annual measures of economic hardship (EH) across 22 years of adulthood and objective measures of early ageing in a Danish late-middle-aged population (N = 5575). EH (years <60% of the National median equivalized household disposable income) was experienced by 18% during 1987–2008. Four or more years in EH (reference = null years in EH) was related to poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.49 counts/30 s [95% confidence interval (CI) − 2.36, − 0.61], hand grip strength: − 1.22 kg [95% CI − 2.38, − 0.07], jump height: − 1.67 cm [95% CI − 2.44, − 0.91] and balance: 18% [95% CI 9, 28]), poorer cognitive function (Intelligenz-Struktur-Test: − 1.50 points [95% CI − 2.89, − 0.12]) and higher inflammatory levels (C-reactive protein: 22% [95% CI 4, 44], and Interleukin-6: 23% [95% CI 10, 39]). Comparing four EH trajectories, people with a high versus low probability of EH over time had poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.70 counts/30 s [95% CI − 3.38, − 0.01], grip: − 4.33 kg [95% CI − 6.50, − 2.16], jump: − 1.68 cm [95% CI − 3.12, − 0.25] and balance: 31% [95% CI 12, 52]). No associations were observed with tumour necrosis factor-α. Results were adjusted for sex, age, long-term parental unemployment/financial problems, education, baseline income and cohort. This study suggested EH for four or more years to be associated with poorer physical capability, cognitive function and increased inflammatory levels in midlife. High probability of EH across adulthood was similarly related to poorer physical capability and CRP, but not cognitive function and the remaining inflammatory markers. In conclusion, preventive initiatives focusing on reducing the burden of sustained economic hardship may lead to increased healthy ageing.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Ageing
ISSN1613-9372
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Health (social science)
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cognitive function
  • Early ageing
  • Economic hardship
  • Inflammation
  • Life course
  • Physical capability

Cite this

@article{90b9ab0c67054eab9ad8e389cba5da36,
title = "Economic hardship over twenty-two consecutive years of adult life and markers of early ageing: physical capability, cognitive function and inflammation",
abstract = "This study assesses the associations between annual measures of economic hardship (EH) across 22 years of adulthood and objective measures of early ageing in a Danish late-middle-aged population (N = 5575). EH (years <60{\%} of the National median equivalized household disposable income) was experienced by 18{\%} during 1987–2008. Four or more years in EH (reference = null years in EH) was related to poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.49 counts/30 s [95{\%} confidence interval (CI) − 2.36, − 0.61], hand grip strength: − 1.22 kg [95{\%} CI − 2.38, − 0.07], jump height: − 1.67 cm [95{\%} CI − 2.44, − 0.91] and balance: 18{\%} [95{\%} CI 9, 28]), poorer cognitive function (Intelligenz-Struktur-Test: − 1.50 points [95{\%} CI − 2.89, − 0.12]) and higher inflammatory levels (C-reactive protein: 22{\%} [95{\%} CI 4, 44], and Interleukin-6: 23{\%} [95{\%} CI 10, 39]). Comparing four EH trajectories, people with a high versus low probability of EH over time had poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.70 counts/30 s [95{\%} CI − 3.38, − 0.01], grip: − 4.33 kg [95{\%} CI − 6.50, − 2.16], jump: − 1.68 cm [95{\%} CI − 3.12, − 0.25] and balance: 31{\%} [95{\%} CI 12, 52]). No associations were observed with tumour necrosis factor-α. Results were adjusted for sex, age, long-term parental unemployment/financial problems, education, baseline income and cohort. This study suggested EH for four or more years to be associated with poorer physical capability, cognitive function and increased inflammatory levels in midlife. High probability of EH across adulthood was similarly related to poorer physical capability and CRP, but not cognitive function and the remaining inflammatory markers. In conclusion, preventive initiatives focusing on reducing the burden of sustained economic hardship may lead to increased healthy ageing.",
keywords = "Health (social science), Geriatrics and Gerontology, Cognitive function, Early ageing, Economic hardship, Inflammation, Life course, Physical capability",
author = "Else Foverskov and Petersen, {Gitte Lindved} and Pedersen, {Jolene Lee Masters} and Rod, {Naja Hulvej} and Mortensen, {Erik Lykke} and Helle Bruunsgaard and Rikke Lund",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1007/s10433-019-00523-z",
language = "English",
journal = "European Journal of Ageing",
issn = "1613-9372",
publisher = "Springer",

}

Economic hardship over twenty-two consecutive years of adult life and markers of early ageing: physical capability, cognitive function and inflammation. / Foverskov, Else; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Lund, Rikke.

In: European Journal of Ageing, 2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Economic hardship over twenty-two consecutive years of adult life and markers of early ageing: physical capability, cognitive function and inflammation

AU - Foverskov, Else

AU - Petersen, Gitte Lindved

AU - Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters

AU - Rod, Naja Hulvej

AU - Mortensen, Erik Lykke

AU - Bruunsgaard, Helle

AU - Lund, Rikke

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - This study assesses the associations between annual measures of economic hardship (EH) across 22 years of adulthood and objective measures of early ageing in a Danish late-middle-aged population (N = 5575). EH (years <60% of the National median equivalized household disposable income) was experienced by 18% during 1987–2008. Four or more years in EH (reference = null years in EH) was related to poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.49 counts/30 s [95% confidence interval (CI) − 2.36, − 0.61], hand grip strength: − 1.22 kg [95% CI − 2.38, − 0.07], jump height: − 1.67 cm [95% CI − 2.44, − 0.91] and balance: 18% [95% CI 9, 28]), poorer cognitive function (Intelligenz-Struktur-Test: − 1.50 points [95% CI − 2.89, − 0.12]) and higher inflammatory levels (C-reactive protein: 22% [95% CI 4, 44], and Interleukin-6: 23% [95% CI 10, 39]). Comparing four EH trajectories, people with a high versus low probability of EH over time had poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.70 counts/30 s [95% CI − 3.38, − 0.01], grip: − 4.33 kg [95% CI − 6.50, − 2.16], jump: − 1.68 cm [95% CI − 3.12, − 0.25] and balance: 31% [95% CI 12, 52]). No associations were observed with tumour necrosis factor-α. Results were adjusted for sex, age, long-term parental unemployment/financial problems, education, baseline income and cohort. This study suggested EH for four or more years to be associated with poorer physical capability, cognitive function and increased inflammatory levels in midlife. High probability of EH across adulthood was similarly related to poorer physical capability and CRP, but not cognitive function and the remaining inflammatory markers. In conclusion, preventive initiatives focusing on reducing the burden of sustained economic hardship may lead to increased healthy ageing.

AB - This study assesses the associations between annual measures of economic hardship (EH) across 22 years of adulthood and objective measures of early ageing in a Danish late-middle-aged population (N = 5575). EH (years <60% of the National median equivalized household disposable income) was experienced by 18% during 1987–2008. Four or more years in EH (reference = null years in EH) was related to poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.49 counts/30 s [95% confidence interval (CI) − 2.36, − 0.61], hand grip strength: − 1.22 kg [95% CI − 2.38, − 0.07], jump height: − 1.67 cm [95% CI − 2.44, − 0.91] and balance: 18% [95% CI 9, 28]), poorer cognitive function (Intelligenz-Struktur-Test: − 1.50 points [95% CI − 2.89, − 0.12]) and higher inflammatory levels (C-reactive protein: 22% [95% CI 4, 44], and Interleukin-6: 23% [95% CI 10, 39]). Comparing four EH trajectories, people with a high versus low probability of EH over time had poorer physical capability (chair rise: − 1.70 counts/30 s [95% CI − 3.38, − 0.01], grip: − 4.33 kg [95% CI − 6.50, − 2.16], jump: − 1.68 cm [95% CI − 3.12, − 0.25] and balance: 31% [95% CI 12, 52]). No associations were observed with tumour necrosis factor-α. Results were adjusted for sex, age, long-term parental unemployment/financial problems, education, baseline income and cohort. This study suggested EH for four or more years to be associated with poorer physical capability, cognitive function and increased inflammatory levels in midlife. High probability of EH across adulthood was similarly related to poorer physical capability and CRP, but not cognitive function and the remaining inflammatory markers. In conclusion, preventive initiatives focusing on reducing the burden of sustained economic hardship may lead to increased healthy ageing.

KW - Health (social science)

KW - Geriatrics and Gerontology

KW - Cognitive function

KW - Early ageing

KW - Economic hardship

KW - Inflammation

KW - Life course

KW - Physical capability

U2 - 10.1007/s10433-019-00523-z

DO - 10.1007/s10433-019-00523-z

M3 - Journal article

JO - European Journal of Ageing

JF - European Journal of Ageing

SN - 1613-9372

ER -