Early Proterozoic weathering processes under low O2 conditions reconstructed from a 2.45 Ga paleosol in Pronto, Canada

Takashi Murakami, Takeshi Kasama, Satoshi Utsunomiya

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We have examined a paleosol in Pronto, Canada, which formed at similar to 2.45 Ga and under very low O-2 conditions, to reconstruct ancient weathering processes. Chlorite, which replaced biotite in parent granite, consists of almost complete chlorite layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission microcopy. Chlorite grains were fragmented gradually with increased intensity of weathering. The fragmented chlorite grains were partly or largely replaced by sericite formed from K-metasomatism, which strongly suggests that almost complete chloritization of biotite preceded sericitization. In the upper part of the paleosol, chlorite-biotite mixed layers formed but the formation of these layers cannot be explained by mere chloritization and sericitization, which are usually considered to occur concurrently during post-weathering events. Our observations and analyses suggest that the chlorite-biotite mixed layers were formed as follows: chlorite, with no or little biotite, was formed from biotite in parent granite prior to weathering. Chlorite was then weathered by dissolution and fragmentation at similar to 2.45 Ga, and chlorite-vermiculite (or smectite) mixed layers were formed by layer-by-layer transformation in the weathering profile (note that vermiculite is not actually observed in the Pronto paleosol). Following burial of the weathering profile, the vermiculite layers in the chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers were converted to biotite layers, by means of K-metasomatism, to form the chlorite-biotite mixed layers. The chlorite-biotite mixed layers in the Pronto paleosol were therefore chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers at the time of weathering.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAMERICAN MINERALOGIST
Volume96
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)1613-1623
ISSN0003-004X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

Cite this

Murakami, Takashi ; Kasama, Takeshi ; Utsunomiya, Satoshi. / Early Proterozoic weathering processes under low O2 conditions reconstructed from a 2.45 Ga paleosol in Pronto, Canada. In: AMERICAN MINERALOGIST. 2011 ; Vol. 96, No. 10. pp. 1613-1623.
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abstract = "We have examined a paleosol in Pronto, Canada, which formed at similar to 2.45 Ga and under very low O-2 conditions, to reconstruct ancient weathering processes. Chlorite, which replaced biotite in parent granite, consists of almost complete chlorite layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission microcopy. Chlorite grains were fragmented gradually with increased intensity of weathering. The fragmented chlorite grains were partly or largely replaced by sericite formed from K-metasomatism, which strongly suggests that almost complete chloritization of biotite preceded sericitization. In the upper part of the paleosol, chlorite-biotite mixed layers formed but the formation of these layers cannot be explained by mere chloritization and sericitization, which are usually considered to occur concurrently during post-weathering events. Our observations and analyses suggest that the chlorite-biotite mixed layers were formed as follows: chlorite, with no or little biotite, was formed from biotite in parent granite prior to weathering. Chlorite was then weathered by dissolution and fragmentation at similar to 2.45 Ga, and chlorite-vermiculite (or smectite) mixed layers were formed by layer-by-layer transformation in the weathering profile (note that vermiculite is not actually observed in the Pronto paleosol). Following burial of the weathering profile, the vermiculite layers in the chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers were converted to biotite layers, by means of K-metasomatism, to form the chlorite-biotite mixed layers. The chlorite-biotite mixed layers in the Pronto paleosol were therefore chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers at the time of weathering.",
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Early Proterozoic weathering processes under low O2 conditions reconstructed from a 2.45 Ga paleosol in Pronto, Canada. / Murakami, Takashi; Kasama, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Satoshi.

In: AMERICAN MINERALOGIST, Vol. 96, No. 10, 2011, p. 1613-1623.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Early Proterozoic weathering processes under low O2 conditions reconstructed from a 2.45 Ga paleosol in Pronto, Canada

AU - Murakami, Takashi

AU - Kasama, Takeshi

AU - Utsunomiya, Satoshi

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - We have examined a paleosol in Pronto, Canada, which formed at similar to 2.45 Ga and under very low O-2 conditions, to reconstruct ancient weathering processes. Chlorite, which replaced biotite in parent granite, consists of almost complete chlorite layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission microcopy. Chlorite grains were fragmented gradually with increased intensity of weathering. The fragmented chlorite grains were partly or largely replaced by sericite formed from K-metasomatism, which strongly suggests that almost complete chloritization of biotite preceded sericitization. In the upper part of the paleosol, chlorite-biotite mixed layers formed but the formation of these layers cannot be explained by mere chloritization and sericitization, which are usually considered to occur concurrently during post-weathering events. Our observations and analyses suggest that the chlorite-biotite mixed layers were formed as follows: chlorite, with no or little biotite, was formed from biotite in parent granite prior to weathering. Chlorite was then weathered by dissolution and fragmentation at similar to 2.45 Ga, and chlorite-vermiculite (or smectite) mixed layers were formed by layer-by-layer transformation in the weathering profile (note that vermiculite is not actually observed in the Pronto paleosol). Following burial of the weathering profile, the vermiculite layers in the chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers were converted to biotite layers, by means of K-metasomatism, to form the chlorite-biotite mixed layers. The chlorite-biotite mixed layers in the Pronto paleosol were therefore chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers at the time of weathering.

AB - We have examined a paleosol in Pronto, Canada, which formed at similar to 2.45 Ga and under very low O-2 conditions, to reconstruct ancient weathering processes. Chlorite, which replaced biotite in parent granite, consists of almost complete chlorite layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission microcopy. Chlorite grains were fragmented gradually with increased intensity of weathering. The fragmented chlorite grains were partly or largely replaced by sericite formed from K-metasomatism, which strongly suggests that almost complete chloritization of biotite preceded sericitization. In the upper part of the paleosol, chlorite-biotite mixed layers formed but the formation of these layers cannot be explained by mere chloritization and sericitization, which are usually considered to occur concurrently during post-weathering events. Our observations and analyses suggest that the chlorite-biotite mixed layers were formed as follows: chlorite, with no or little biotite, was formed from biotite in parent granite prior to weathering. Chlorite was then weathered by dissolution and fragmentation at similar to 2.45 Ga, and chlorite-vermiculite (or smectite) mixed layers were formed by layer-by-layer transformation in the weathering profile (note that vermiculite is not actually observed in the Pronto paleosol). Following burial of the weathering profile, the vermiculite layers in the chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers were converted to biotite layers, by means of K-metasomatism, to form the chlorite-biotite mixed layers. The chlorite-biotite mixed layers in the Pronto paleosol were therefore chlorite-vermiculite mixed layers at the time of weathering.

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DO - 10.2138/am.2011.3821

M3 - Journal article

VL - 96

SP - 1613

EP - 1623

JO - American Mineralogist

JF - American Mineralogist

SN - 0003-004X

IS - 10

ER -