Ear-to-Ear Propagation Model based on Geometrical Theory of Diffraction

Nikolaj Peter Brunvoll Kammersgaard*, Søren H. Kvist, Jesper Thaysen, Kaj Bjarne Jakobsen

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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    An ear-to-ear propagation model based on geometrical theory of diffraction is presented. The model uses the creeping wave loss along the geodesic paths that connect the ears. It is the first model to investigate which geodesic paths that link the ears. The model uses geometrical theory of diffraction expressions for a lossy dielectric material, which is a much better approximation of the human body than the perfect electric conductor approximation often used. The model is validated for the industrial, scientific and medical band at 2.45 GHz. The model is valid at any frequency range as long as the propagation loss through the head is significantly higher than the propagation loss around the head. Likewise, the model could be used for other areas of the body. The comparison with simulations show strong correlation. The antenna orientation and frequency sweeps were preformed to further investigate the model. The sweeps change the radiation pattern of the antenna to utilize different paths around the head, but the model still correlates with the simulation. This validates the models division of the ear-to-ear propagation into different geodesic paths around the head.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)1153-1160
    Publication statusPublished - 2019


    • Creeping wave
    • Ear-to-ear (E2E)
    • Gemoetrical theory of diffraction (GTD)
    • Hearing instruments (HIs)
    • Off-body
    • On-body
    • Wireless body area network (WBAN)


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