In recent years extended focus has been placed on monitoring and understanding degradation mechanisms in both solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells. The time-consuming nature of degradation experiments and the disparate conclusions from experiment reproductions indicates that not all degradation mechanisms are fully understood. Traditionally, cell degradation has been attributed to the materials, processing and cell operating conditions. More recently, focus has been placed on the effect of raw material and gas impurities and their long-term effect on cell degradation. Minor impurities have been found to play a significant role in degradation and in some cases can overshadow the cell operation condition related degradation phenomenon. In this review, several degradation diagnostic tools are discussed, a benchmark for a desirable degradation rate is proposed and degradation behaviour and mechanisms are discussed. For ease of navigation, the review is separated into the various cell components – fuel electrode, electrolyte and oxygen electrode. Finally, nano-particle impregnate stability is discussed.
- Solid Oxide Fuel Cells