Dual boundary spanning: Toward a typology of outside-in open innovation in the Canadian context

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    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945–1980, this study unveils different implications of these innovation types for different levels of innovation novelty.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalCanadian Journal of Administrative Sciences
    Issue number3
    Pages (from-to)429-443
    Publication statusPublished - 2018


    • Open innovation
    • Resource-based view
    • Outside-in innovation types
    • External knowledge

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