Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids

Ali Bidadfar*, Oscar Saborío-Romano, Müfit Altin, Nicolaos Antonio Cutululis, E. Prieto-Araujo, O. Gomis-Bellmunt, Poul Ejnar Sørensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Offshore HVDC grids are envisaged to render more reliable and economical solutions for transferring more offshore wind energy to onshore power systems. From the reliability point of view, the most promising operational/control strategy of HVDC grids is the dc voltage droop control. This control provides autonomous power-sharing among converters and promotes the frequency support to onshore power systems from other ends of HVDC grids without using fast communication links. The simultaneous use of frequency and dc voltage droops in an HVDC converter can transform frequency deviations into dc voltage changes. Other converters with dc voltage droop can react to the changes by regulating their power flow. Therefore, autonomous frequency support can be established through an HVDC grid. Although this method is reliable, fast, and economical, it gives rise to interactions between different droops, which can result in a reduction in the HVDC power that system operators can expect during frequency events. The present study investigates the effectiveness and challenges of the droop-based (communication less) control for providing frequency support in offshore HVDC grids. The frequency support is described mathematically, and a static transfer function between onshore frequency and HVDC power is derived as a function of the power system and control parameters. The function can be used to compensate for the adverse effect of frequency and dc voltage droop interactions; however, it is challenging in the case where an HVDC grid has more than one onshore ac systems since the transfer function of one ac system will depend on the parameters of other ac systems. A signal-flow model is developed for offshore HVDC grids to quantify the effects of onshore frequency deviations on different electrical parameters of the grid. Using this model the transfer function mentioned before can be obtained more easily. A point-to point and a four-terminal HVDC connections are simulated and communication less control is numerically compared with communication-based control.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019
Number of pages10
PublisherCIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems)
Publication date2019
Article number13 (YM)
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventCigre Aalborg 2019: International Symposium - Aalborg Congress and Culture Centre, Aalborg, Denmark
Duration: 4 Jun 20197 Jun 2019
https://cigreaalborg2019.dk/

Conference

ConferenceCigre Aalborg 2019: International Symposium
LocationAalborg Congress and Culture Centre
CountryDenmark
CityAalborg
Period04/06/201907/06/2019
Internet address

Cite this

Bidadfar, A., Saborío-Romano, O., Altin, M., Cutululis, N. A., Prieto-Araujo, E., Gomis-Bellmunt, O., & Sørensen, P. E. (2019). Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids. In Proceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019 [13 (YM)] CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems).
Bidadfar, Ali ; Saborío-Romano, Oscar ; Altin, Müfit ; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio ; Prieto-Araujo, E. ; Gomis-Bellmunt, O. ; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar. / Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids. Proceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019. CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems), 2019.
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title = "Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids",
abstract = "Offshore HVDC grids are envisaged to render more reliable and economical solutions for transferring more offshore wind energy to onshore power systems. From the reliability point of view, the most promising operational/control strategy of HVDC grids is the dc voltage droop control. This control provides autonomous power-sharing among converters and promotes the frequency support to onshore power systems from other ends of HVDC grids without using fast communication links. The simultaneous use of frequency and dc voltage droops in an HVDC converter can transform frequency deviations into dc voltage changes. Other converters with dc voltage droop can react to the changes by regulating their power flow. Therefore, autonomous frequency support can be established through an HVDC grid. Although this method is reliable, fast, and economical, it gives rise to interactions between different droops, which can result in a reduction in the HVDC power that system operators can expect during frequency events. The present study investigates the effectiveness and challenges of the droop-based (communication less) control for providing frequency support in offshore HVDC grids. The frequency support is described mathematically, and a static transfer function between onshore frequency and HVDC power is derived as a function of the power system and control parameters. The function can be used to compensate for the adverse effect of frequency and dc voltage droop interactions; however, it is challenging in the case where an HVDC grid has more than one onshore ac systems since the transfer function of one ac system will depend on the parameters of other ac systems. A signal-flow model is developed for offshore HVDC grids to quantify the effects of onshore frequency deviations on different electrical parameters of the grid. Using this model the transfer function mentioned before can be obtained more easily. A point-to point and a four-terminal HVDC connections are simulated and communication less control is numerically compared with communication-based control.",
author = "Ali Bidadfar and Oscar Sabor{\'i}o-Romano and M{\"u}fit Altin and Cutululis, {Nicolaos Antonio} and E. Prieto-Araujo and O. Gomis-Bellmunt and S{\o}rensen, {Poul Ejnar}",
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Bidadfar, A, Saborío-Romano, O, Altin, M, Cutululis, NA, Prieto-Araujo, E, Gomis-Bellmunt, O & Sørensen, PE 2019, Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids. in Proceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019., 13 (YM), CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems), Cigre Aalborg 2019: International Symposium, Aalborg, Denmark, 04/06/2019.

Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids. / Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Prieto-Araujo, E.; Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar.

Proceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019. CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems), 2019. 13 (YM).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids

AU - Bidadfar, Ali

AU - Saborío-Romano, Oscar

AU - Altin, Müfit

AU - Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

AU - Prieto-Araujo, E.

AU - Gomis-Bellmunt, O.

AU - Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Offshore HVDC grids are envisaged to render more reliable and economical solutions for transferring more offshore wind energy to onshore power systems. From the reliability point of view, the most promising operational/control strategy of HVDC grids is the dc voltage droop control. This control provides autonomous power-sharing among converters and promotes the frequency support to onshore power systems from other ends of HVDC grids without using fast communication links. The simultaneous use of frequency and dc voltage droops in an HVDC converter can transform frequency deviations into dc voltage changes. Other converters with dc voltage droop can react to the changes by regulating their power flow. Therefore, autonomous frequency support can be established through an HVDC grid. Although this method is reliable, fast, and economical, it gives rise to interactions between different droops, which can result in a reduction in the HVDC power that system operators can expect during frequency events. The present study investigates the effectiveness and challenges of the droop-based (communication less) control for providing frequency support in offshore HVDC grids. The frequency support is described mathematically, and a static transfer function between onshore frequency and HVDC power is derived as a function of the power system and control parameters. The function can be used to compensate for the adverse effect of frequency and dc voltage droop interactions; however, it is challenging in the case where an HVDC grid has more than one onshore ac systems since the transfer function of one ac system will depend on the parameters of other ac systems. A signal-flow model is developed for offshore HVDC grids to quantify the effects of onshore frequency deviations on different electrical parameters of the grid. Using this model the transfer function mentioned before can be obtained more easily. A point-to point and a four-terminal HVDC connections are simulated and communication less control is numerically compared with communication-based control.

AB - Offshore HVDC grids are envisaged to render more reliable and economical solutions for transferring more offshore wind energy to onshore power systems. From the reliability point of view, the most promising operational/control strategy of HVDC grids is the dc voltage droop control. This control provides autonomous power-sharing among converters and promotes the frequency support to onshore power systems from other ends of HVDC grids without using fast communication links. The simultaneous use of frequency and dc voltage droops in an HVDC converter can transform frequency deviations into dc voltage changes. Other converters with dc voltage droop can react to the changes by regulating their power flow. Therefore, autonomous frequency support can be established through an HVDC grid. Although this method is reliable, fast, and economical, it gives rise to interactions between different droops, which can result in a reduction in the HVDC power that system operators can expect during frequency events. The present study investigates the effectiveness and challenges of the droop-based (communication less) control for providing frequency support in offshore HVDC grids. The frequency support is described mathematically, and a static transfer function between onshore frequency and HVDC power is derived as a function of the power system and control parameters. The function can be used to compensate for the adverse effect of frequency and dc voltage droop interactions; however, it is challenging in the case where an HVDC grid has more than one onshore ac systems since the transfer function of one ac system will depend on the parameters of other ac systems. A signal-flow model is developed for offshore HVDC grids to quantify the effects of onshore frequency deviations on different electrical parameters of the grid. Using this model the transfer function mentioned before can be obtained more easily. A point-to point and a four-terminal HVDC connections are simulated and communication less control is numerically compared with communication-based control.

M3 - Article in proceedings

BT - Proceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019

PB - CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems)

ER -

Bidadfar A, Saborío-Romano O, Altin M, Cutululis NA, Prieto-Araujo E, Gomis-Bellmunt O et al. Droop-Based Frequency Support from Offshore HVDC Grids. In Proceedings of the CIGRE Symposium 2019. CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems). 2019. 13 (YM)